Anthropology Chapter 1 Vocab

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JuliaMae
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232078
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Anthropology Chapter 1 Vocab
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2013-08-30 15:54:24
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Anthropology
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Chapter one vocab
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  1. Savanna
    Large flat grassland with scattered trees and shrubs. Savannas are found in many regions of the world with dry warm-to-hot climates.
  2. Hominins
    Colloquial term for members of the evolutionary group that includes modern humans and now extinct bipedal relatives.
  3. Bipedally
    On two feet; walking habitually on two legs.
  4. Species
    A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species.
  5. Anthropology
    The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical, or biological, anthropology.
  6. Primates
    Members of the mammalian order Primates (pry-may-tees), which includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans.
  7. Evolution
    A change in the genetic structure of a population. The term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of a new species.
  8. Adaptation
    An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptations result from evolutionary change (specifically as a result of natural selection).
  9. Genetic
    Having to do with the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.
  10. Culture
    Behavioral aspect of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, ans social roles. Culture is a set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by non-biological (non-genetic) means. (It is taught rather than inherited.)
  11. Worldview
    General cultural orientation or perspective shared by members of a society.
  12. Behavior
    Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli; the response of an individual, group, or species to its development. Such responses may or may not be deliberate, and they aren't necessarily the result of conscious decision making (which is absent in single celled organisms, insects and other species).
  13. Biocultural Evolution
    The mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution; the basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution.
  14. Applied Anthropology
    The practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques. For example, many biological anthropologists work in the public health sector.
  15. Ethnographies
    Detailed, descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural anthropology, an ethnography is traditionally the study of non-Western society.
  16. Artifacts
    Objects or materials made or modified for use by hominins. The earliest artifacts are usually tools made of stone, or occasionally, bone.
  17. Paleoanthropology
    The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominins- their chronological, physical structure, archaeological remains, habitats and so on.
  18. Primate Paleontology
    The study of fossil primates, especially those that lived before the appearance of hominins.
  19. Anthropometry
    Measurement of human body parts. When osteologists measure skeletal elements, the term osteometry is often used.
  20. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    The double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code. DNA is a main component of chromosomes.
  21. Osteology
    The study of skeletal material. Human osteology focuses on the interpretation of the skeletal remains from archaeological sites, skeletal anatomy, bone physiology, and growth and development. Some of the same techniques are used in paleoanthropology to study early hominins.
  22. Bioarchaeology
    The study of skeletal remains from achaeological sites.
  23. Paleopathology
    The branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal (or, occasionally, mummified) remains from archaeological sites.
  24. Forensic Anthropology
    An applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters. Forensic anthropologists work with coroners and other in identifying and analyzing human remains.
  25. Primatology
    The study of the biology and behavior of nonhuman primates (lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys and apes).
  26. Science
    A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation; from the LatinĀ scientia, meaning "knowledge".
  27. Hypotheses
    (Sing. hypothesis) A provisional explanation of a phenomenon. Hypotheses require verification or falsification through testing.
  28. Empirical
    Relying on experiment or observation; from the LatinĀ empiricus, meaning "experienced".
  29. Scientific Method
    An approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis (provisional explanation) is stated, and that hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data.
  30. Data
    (sing. datum) Facts from which conclusions can be drawn; scientific information.
  31. Quantitatively
    Pertaining to measurements of quantity and including such properties as size, number and capacity. When data are quantified, they're expressed numerically and can be tested statistically.
  32. Theory
    A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypotheses.
  33. Scientific Testing
    The precise repetition of an experiment or expansion of observed data to provide verification; the procedure by which hypotheses and theories are verified, modified or discarded.
  34. Quadrupedal
    Using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion; the basic mammalian (and primate) form of locomotion.
  35. Ethnocentric
    Viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one's own culture. Ethnocentrism often results in other cultures being seen as inferior to one's own.
  36. Speciation
    Appearance of a new species.

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