Muscle Physiology - 2

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fidelforde
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232080
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Muscle Physiology - 2
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2013-09-02 15:25:56
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Massage Exam Prep Muscle Physiology
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Massage Prep Study Guide: Muscle Physiology - 2
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  1. Which layer of connective tissue wraps individual muscle fibers?

    A) Epimysium
    B) Myofibrils
    C) Perimysium -
    D) Endomysium
    D) Endomysium


    Endo - within, inner
    Peri - about or around
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which describes visceral muscle?

    A) smooth (non-striated) and voluntary
    B) Striated and voluntary
    C) Smooth (non-striated) and involuntary
    D) Striated and involuntary
    C) Smooth (non-striated) and involuntary

    Smooth muscle is the only muscle of this type and without striations.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. What is a flat tendon sheet of fibrous tissue called?

    A) Fibrouitis
    B) Ankylysis 
    C) Fibrous
    D) Aponeurosis
    D) Aponeurosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which layer of connective tissue wraps groups of muscle fibers?

    A) Epimysium
    B) Endomysium
    C) Perimysium
    D) Mysium
    C) Perimysium

    Epi - on, over,
    Endo - inside, within
    Peri - surrounding,
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. What does the body use to store a reserve of energy in muscle tissue?

    A) Sugar
    B) Glucose
    C) Glycogen and ATP
    D) None of the options
    C) Glycogen and ATP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. What does the strength o a muscle contraction depend on?

    A) Number of motor end plates
    B) Muscle size
    C) Number of motor units stimulated
    D) Exercise
    C) Number of motor units stimulated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. There is a type of muscle contraction that is present in healthy muscle even while they are at rest. What is the correct term for this type of contraction?

    A) Hypertonic
    B) Isometric
    C) Tonus
    D) Relaxed
    C) Tonus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. During what kind of activity is lactic acid produced?

    A) None of these
    B) During any kind of activity
    C) During activity that is solely aerobic
    D) During activity that is anaerobic
    D) During activity that is anaerobic

    Strength training and short-distant running are examples of anaerobic exercise. Intense enough to trigger anaerobic metabolism (produces lactic acid)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. What is the prolonged contraction of a muscle without relaxation called?

    A) Tetanus
    B) Twitch
    C) Fibrillation
    D) Treppe
    A) Tetanus

    A sustained muscle contraction due to lack of relaxation between successive stimuli
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What do motor end plates refer to?

    A) Motor units
    B) Motor neurons
    C) Myoblasts
    D) Neuromuscular junctions
    D) Neuromuscular junctions

    a place in the body where the axons of motor nerves meet the muscle, thus transmitting message from the the brain which causes the muscle to contract and relax
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. What is the term or a muscle contraction in which the muscle is activated, but instead of being allowed to lengthen or shorten, it is held at a constant length?

    A) Kinetic
    B) Isokinetic
    C) Isometric
    D) Isotonic
    C) Isometric

    A man carrying an object in from of him; biceps are isometrically contracted
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. What is the term for scar tissue formation?

    A) Muscularization
    B) Fibrosis
    C) Granulation
    D) Adhesion
    B) Fibrosis

    form of excess connective tissue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. What is another name for contractile tissue?

    A) Ligament
    B) Fascia
    C) Tendon
    D) Muscle
    D) Muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. What is the lubricating substance that is inside freely moveable joint (diarthrosis) cavities?

    A) Serous membrane
    B) Synovial fluid
    C) Epithelil tissue
    D) Mucus membrane
    B) Synovial fluid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which is a closed sac lined with a synovial membrane and filled with fluid, usually found in area subject to friction?

    A) Intra-capsular ligament
    B) Bursa
    C) Cartilage
    D) Tendon
    B) Bursa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which is the term for sensory nerve endings that sense movement  and position?

    A) Reflex arcs
    B) Proprioceptors
    C) Receivers
    D) Axon
    B) Proprioceptors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. What is the stimulus called when the first noticeable muscle contraction occurs?

    A) Maximal stimulas
    B) Initial stimulus
    C) Threshold stimulas
    D) Static force
    C) Threshold stimulas

    just strong enough to evoke a response
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which is the term for a single motor neuron and all of the corresponding fibers it innervates?

    A) Motor unit
    B) Endomysium
    C) Synergist
    D) Neuroblock
    A) Motor unit

    when a motor is activated, all of it's fibers contract
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. What is the principal that applies to skeletal muscles as they contract with varying degrees of strength at different times?

    A) All-or-None Principal
    B) None of the options
    C) The Graded Strength Principal
    D) Muscle Twitch Principal
    C) The Graded Strength Principal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. When comparing the structure of muscle cells to other cells, what is the sarcoplasm?

    A) The sarcoplasm of the muscles cell functions as the cell membrane
    B) The sarcoplasm of the muscle functions as cytoplasm
    C) The sarcoplasm of the muscle cell function as the endoplasmic
    D) The sarcoplasm of the muscle cell functions as the nucleus
    B) The sarcoplasm of the muscle functions as cytoplasm

    sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. When comparing the structure of muscle cells to other cells, what is the sarcolemma?

    A) The sarcolemma of the muscle functions as the cell membrane
    B) The sarcolemma of the muscle functions as the nucleus
    C) The sarcolemma of the muscle functions as the endoplasmic reticulum
    D) The sarcolemma of the muscle cell functions as cytoplasm
    A) The sarcolemma of the muscle functions as the cell membrane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. What is the general name given to the chemical ACh  (Acetylcholine) which functions to stimulate skeletal muscle cells?

    A) Neurotransmitter
    B) Synaptic cleft
    C) Synovial fluid
    D) Motor unit
    A) Neurotransmitter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which principal states that muscles will never partially contract: rather, it will contract to it's fullest extent when it is stimulated adequately?

    A) None of the options
    B) Muscle Twitch Principal
    C) The Graded Strength Principal
    D) All-or-None Principal
    D) All-or-None Principal

    nerve or muscle response does not depend on the strength of the stimulus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. What is the motor unit of a muscle composed of?

    A) The attachment of tendon to the periosteum and the muscle
    B) A single motor neuron only
    C) A single motor neuron and the muscle cells it stimulates
    D) None of these options
    C) A single motor neuron and the muscle cells it stimulates

    when a motor unit is activated, all of it's fibers will contract
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which group includes actin and myosin?

    A) Sugars
    B) Fats
    C) Proteins
    D) Carbohydrates
    C) Proteins

    Actin and myosin are biochemical proteins involved in muscle contraction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. What are the tubes that run through the muscle fiber transversely and extend from the surface of the muscle fiber to its interior?

    A) Cross-bridges
    B) Z-lines
    C) A-lines
    D) T-tubules
    D) T-tubules

    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. What is the name for the dark area of dense material that separates one sarcomere from another?

    A) A band
    B) H zone
    C) Z disc
    D) none of the options
    C) Z disc

    Z disc or Z line 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. What is the term for the link between myosin and actin filaments which occurs during muscle contractions?

    A) Myofibrils
    B) Z-discs
    C) Cross-bridge cycling
    D) Neuromuscular junction
    C) Cross-bridge cycling

    process wherein myosin binds with actin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Muscle spindles are embedded in the belly of a muscle. What kind of receptor are they?

    A) Proprioceptor
    B) Naked nerve ending
    C) Chemoreceptor
    D) Meissner's corpuscle
    A) Proprioceptor

    Proprioceptor - sensory receptors that detect changes in the length of the muscle

    Chemoreceptor - is a sensory receptor that transduces a chemical signal into an action potential
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which proprioceptor provides information about the length or change in length of skeletal muscle as a part of the stretch reflex?

    A) Muscle spindels
    B) Golgi tendon organ
    C) ACh
    D) Efferent neurons
    A) Muscle spindels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of the following neurotransmitters is released in the neuromuscular junction?

    A) Epinephrine
    B) Norepinephrine
    C) Dopamine
    D) Acetylcholine
    D) Acetylcholine

    also known as ACh

    released at the ends of nerve fibers
    Epinephrine - also known as adrenaline. It is a hormone that is secreted by the adrenal glands

    Norepinephrine - hormone that is released by the adrenal medulla and by the sympathetic nerves and functions as a neurotransmitter. It is also used as a drug to raise blood pressure.

    Dopamine - compound present in the body as a neurotransmitter and a precursor of other substances including epinephrine.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which nerve innervates the anterior compartment of the forearm and, when compressed at the wrist, can result in carpal tunnel syndrome?

    A) Axillary
    B) Median
    C) Ulnar
    D) Radial
    B) Median

    Median nerve is the only nerve that passes through the carpal tunnel
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Which of the following is the proper sequence for a reflex arc?

    A) Receptor, afferent (sensory) neuron, efferent (motor) neuron, interneuron, effector
    B) Receptor, afferent (sensory) neuron, interneuron, effector (motor) neuron, effector
    C) Effector, afferent (sensory) neuron, interneuron, efferent (motor) neuron, receptor
    D) Afferent (sensory) neuron, receptor, Effector (motor) neuron, interneuron effector
    B) Receptor, afferent (sensory) neuron, interneuron, effector (motor) neuron, effector
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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