Cardio Test 1
Card Set Information
Cardio Test 1
The heart is located where?
in the medastinum
What is the outer most pericardial membrane?
What is the middle layer of the pericardial membrane?
What is the inner most layer of the pericardial membranes?
What is another name for the visceral pericardium?
What is the function of the serous fluid between the parietal and visceral membranes?
Where is the serous fluid located in the heart?
Between the parietal and visceral membranes
What are the muscular walls of the chambers of the heart called?
The name for the lining of the chambers of the heart is called?
The function of the myocardium is to ?
The function of the endocardium is to?
Prevent abnormal clotting
The vein that returns blood from the lower portion of the body to the right atrium is called?
inferior vena cava
What is the name of the vein that returns blood from the upper portion of the body to the right atrium?
the superior vena cava
The veins that return blood from the lungs to the left atrium are called?
The function of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) is to?
lower the blood pressure by lowering blood volume
The left ventricle pumps blood into the ____ which then is pumped to _____?
The right ventricle pumps blood into the ____ which then goes to the ____?
pulmonary artery, lungs
The general function of the valves of the heart is to ?
Prevent back flow of blood
What is the function of the chordae tendonae and papillary muscles?
anchor the flaps of the AV valves
The right and left AV valves prevent backflow of blood from the?
from the ventricles to the atria when the ventricles contract
The semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood from the?
arteries to the ventricle when the ventricles relax
The blood vessels that supply the heart itself are called?
For the heart muscle the most important substance in the blood is ?
Sequence of events in one heart beat?
What is the correct sequence of blood flow?
Right heart to lungs to left heart to body to right heart
Part of the heart that initiates the heart beat?
The parts of the cardiac conduction pathway that brings about contraction of the ventricles are?
bundle of His, bundle branches, and purkinje fibersq
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one minute is called?
The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in one beat is called?
How do you calculate cardiac output?
Stroke volume x HR
What is the ejection fraction?
percent of blood within a ventricle that is pumped during systole
The part of the brain that regulates HR is?
The vagus nerves carry impulses from where ___ to _______ (increase or decrease) HR?
the medulla, decrease
Pressoreceptors are located where?
Carotid and aortic sinuses
What is the purpose of the pressoreceptors?
The detect changes in blood pressure
The cardiac accelerator center uses nerves from which nervous system?
The cardiac inhibitory center uses nerves from which nerve?
A sensation of pain on the heart is caused by?
Lack of Oxygen
Chemoreceptors are located where?
Carotid and aortic bodies
What is the purpose of chemoreceptors?
To detect changes in the blood oxygen level
When the blood decreases the kidneys kick in to secrete what?
Antidiuretic hormone is released by what gland?
Posterior pituitary gland
What does ADH do?
increases water reabsorption by the kidneys thus increases blood pressure
Weight gain in a patient can signify?
Right sided heart failure
What happens to the cardio vascular system as a person ages?
- Conduction is less effective
- Resting BP increases
- Decreased HR
- Vein valves are incompetent
The older adult with cardiovascular problems is at risk for ?
True or False: Older adults commonly have s & sx that are not typical of a disorder?
Edema and Jugular vein distention can signify ?
Right sided heart failure
Crackles and wheezes can signify?
Left sided heart failure
Measurements that are taken with the patient lying and sitting and standing to detect abnormal variations with postural changes?
True or False: Edema can be palpated in the lower extremities and the sacrum
What is a holter monitor?
A portable ECG that records for up to 48 hours
What are some things that you should teach a patient who is going to where a holter monitor?
To keep an accurate diary
To push the event button if symptoms occur
Not to take a shower or a bath
Make sure you return
What is an Echocardiogram?
it is an ultrasound of the heart
What to teach the patient who is having a echo done?
There will be no discomfort and that gel will be applied
What should you monitor on a patient that is going for a thallium imaging?
Monitor kidney fxn
and assess for allergies
What does the CK MB measure?
any damage to heart muscle
What can a CK MB help to diagnose?
Cardiac Triponin measures?
cardiac cell protein
Which test is most accurate in diagnosing cardiac disease?
Why would you monitor magnesium levels?
Because Mag is necessary to regulate heartbeat and blood pressure
What can an decreased Mag level cause?
Uses dye injected into the vascular system to visualize the vessels on radiographs
e What is the necessary prep for angiography?
Assess for allergies
NPO for 4 hours prior
tell patient that dye might feel hot/burning when injected
What is the post care for a angiography?
Monitor vital signs
monitor the injection site
Catheter inserted into the heart for data on oxygen saturation and chamber pressure
What is the precare for a cardiac cath?
What should you teach the patient that will happen during the cath?
The table is hard and cold
The table might move around
Might have alittle pain as the cath is inserted
Dye might be used
What is the post care for Cardiac Cath?
Monitor circulation and sensation
Monitor cath insertion site
An xray procedure that produces real time images to help guide insertion of the cath into the heart.
Therapeutic Measures for Cardio system?
Diet -- decrease salt
Oxygen-- relieve pain
What are two juices that might interact with Coumadin?
Cranberry Juice and Grapefruit juice
When a patient is going for any cardiac surgery what medications might be with held?
Meds that will increase bleeding or reduce blood volume
such as anticoagulants
What is considered a normal BP?
Systolic less than 120
Diastolic less than 80
What is stage 1 hypertension parameters?
140 - 159 systolic
90 - 99 diastolic
Stage 2 hypertension parameters?
160 and above systolic
100 and above diastolic
Blood pressure is determined by?
cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance, and viscosity
Primary hypertension pathophysiolgy
Secondary hypertension pathophysiology?
has a known cause usually a sign of another problem
How is hypertension diagnosed?
Through laboratory test
Risks that cannot be changed
what are some non modifiable risks?
Risks that can be changed
What are some examples of modifiable risks
blood sugar levels
What is one of the most important lifestyle modification ?
What can you do with your diet to help lower BP?
lower/reduce salt intake
No salt substitutes
Reduce blood pressure by decreasing blood volume
Example of a thiazide diuretic?
Example of a loop diuretic?
Example of a potassium sparing diuretic?
What are the side effects of diuretics, (loop and thiazide)
What is a major side effect of a potassium sparing diuretic?
What should you teach patients who are taking potassium sparing diuretics to avoid?
potassium rich foods such as oranges, bananas, salt substitutes and dried fruits
This drug decreases BP by decreasing impulses to the sympathetic nervous system
What is an example of a Beta Blocker
What are some side effects of Beta Blockers
This drugs blocks sympathetic nervous system on Alpha1
Alpha 1 blockers
What is an example of an Alpha1 blocker
What is an example of a combination Alpha1 and beta blockers?
This drug blocks the production of angiotensin 2, and thus aldosterone cannot be produced?
What is an example of an ACE inhibitor
What are some side effects of ACE inhibitors?
Edema in HF patients and angioedema
What is an example of a Angiotensin 2 receptor Antagonist?
What are some side effects of ARB?
Edema in HF patients and angioedema
This drug blocks Calcium channels/movement which causes vasodilation
Calcium channel blocker
What is an example of a CCB/
What is a side effect of CCB?
Edema in lower extremities