Vocab for Ant & Phy

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Vocab for Ant & Phy
2013-08-30 19:30:58
Vocab Dr Smith

Test 1 Key Vocabulary
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  1. polar
    when the e’s of a covalent bond are shared unequally making one end of the molecule partially (+) and the other partially (-)
  2. Non-polar
    atoms share electrons equally
  3. homeostasis
    The dynamic condition of keeping the body’s internal environment relatively stable (in equilibrium) due to the constant interaction of the body’s many regulatory processes
  4. anatomy
    study of body structure
  5. physiology
    study of body function
  6. metabolism
    All chemical processes in the body
  7. catabolism
    breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components

    (it loses something like a "catastrophe")
  8. anabolism
    building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components
  9. anatomic position
    • ·Body upright
    • ·Standing erect
    • ·Head and eyes facing forward
    • ·Feet are flat on the floor and forward
    • ·Upper limbs to the sides
    • ·Palms turned forward
  10. element
    substance that cannot be made into smaller units of other substances by ordinary reactions
  11. proton
    Protons (+ charge)
  12. electron
    (-charge) located in electron shells (discrete energy levels) around nucleus
  13. valence shell
    outer shell
  14. atomic number
    of element = number of protons
  15. solvent
    substance in which a solute dissolves
  16. solute
    dissolves in another substance called a solvent
  17. ion
    forms when an atom gives up (donates) an electron from or gains (accepts) an electron(s) to it’s outer (valence) shell
  18. ionic bond
    formed by the attraction between (+) and a (-) charged ions
  19. covalent bond
    are formed when atoms share pairs of electrons
  20. hydrogen bond
    A special polar bond formed when a Hydrogen atom at the partial (+) charged end of a polar molecule attracts the partial (-) charged end of a nearby polar molecule–
  21. cation
    Cations are (+) charged ions
  22. anion
    Anions are (-) charged ions
  23. hydrophilic
    (water loving) substances are: 

    • Polar or ionic (charged) bonds 
    • Dissolve in water
  24. hydrophobic
    (water fearing) substances:   

    • Non-polar (not charged) bonds
    • Do not dissolve in water
  25. exergonic
    energy released from breaking existing bonds: 

    converted to heat (Exothermic) or stored in special molecules (ATP)
  26. endergonic
    energy must be added to form new bonds:

    from heat (Endothermic) from that stored in the bonds of ATP molecule
  27. exothermic
    converted to heat (Exothermic) or stored in special molecules (ATP)
  28. endothermic
    from heat (Endothermic) from that stored in the bonds of ATP molecule
  29. activation energy
    collision energy needed to break chemical bonds in the reactants. This is the initial energy needed to start a reaction.
  30. catalyst
    compounds that speed up reactions by :

    Lowering the amount of energy needed to start a reaction

    Help orient colliding molecules so that a reaction will occur
  31. enzyme
    Enzymes are catalysts

    The catalyst itself is unchanged at the end of the reaction
  32. organic compound
    • Contain primarily carbon (C)
    • hydrogen ( H), oxygen (O),nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and phosphorus (P)  often present
  33. hydrolysis
    Breaks down large molecules into simpler ones by adding a H2O molecule
  34. dehydration synthesis
    Joins simpler molecules, producing a H2O molecule as a by-product
  35. acid
    dissociates in water and releases a free Hydrogen ion (H+)

    • dissociates into a free Hydrogen ion (H+) +
    • an anion-  (a - charged ion)
    • Acid = proton ( H+) donor
  36. base
    dissociates into a hydroxide ion (OH-) + a cation+  (a + charged ion)

    Base = proton ( H+) acceptor
  37. salt
    dissociate into cations(+) and anions(-), neither of which is H+ or OH-

    Salts are responsible for maintaining the levels of many important electrolytes in the body
  38. pH
    • measure of hydrogen ion concentration [ H+]
    • and hydroxide ion [OH-] 

    goes from 0-14
  39. buffer
    compounds that can convert a strong acid or a strong base into a weak acid or base

    CO2+ H2O↔H2CO3 ↔ H+   + HCO3-
  40. polymer
    large molecule created by the covalent bonding of repeating identical or similar small building block molecules which are considered monomers, usually by the process of dehydration synthesis
  41. monomer
    Smaller organic molecules that can make a polymer
  42. isomer
    Organic molecules with the same molecular formula but different molecular structures
  43. hydroxyide (hydroxyl) group
    • (OH) it polar and hydrophilic due to its electronegative O atom
    • OH groups dissolve easily in water
  44. carboxyl group
    (COOH) All amino acids have a COOH group at one end
  45. amino group
    (N) All amino acids have an amino group at one end
  46. phosphate group
    (-PO2-) very hydrophilic
  47. carbohydrate
    primarily as a source of energy as molecules are broken down in catabolic reactions.

    Three major groups of carbohydrates:

    Monosaccharides  ( the monomer subunits of the other 2 groups)

    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides
  48. lipid
    have more C-H bonds, therefore store even more energy than carbohydrates