PSY 200 chapter 5 vocab

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bblair
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232147
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PSY 200 chapter 5 vocab
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2013-08-31 12:21:03
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vocabulary terms for PSY 200 chapter 5
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  1. the level of intensity that lifts a stimulus over the threshold of conscious awareness; it's usually defined as the intensity level at which people can detect the presence of the stimulus 50% of the time
    absolute threshold
  2. In vision, the process through which the lens changes its shape temporarily to help focus light on the retina.
    accommodation
  3. A flexible membrane running through the cochlea that, through its movement, displaces the auditory receptor cells, or hair cells.
    basilar membrane
  4. cues for depth that depend on comparisons between the two eyes
    binocular depth cues
  5. the point where the optic nerve leaves the back of the eye
    blind spot
  6. processing that is controlled by the physical message delivered to the senses.
    bottom-up processing
  7. the aspect of the visual experience that changes with light intensity; in general, as the intensity of light increases, so does its perceived brightness
    brightness
  8. receptor cells that react to invisible molecules scattered about in the air or dissolved in liquids, leading to the senses of smell and taste
    chemoreceptors
  9. the bony, snail-shaped sound processor in the inner ear where sound is translated into nerve implulses
    cochlea
  10. neurons that respond to a cooling of the skin by increasing the production of neural impulses
    cold fibers
  11. receptor cells in the central portion of the retina that transduce light energy into neural messages; they operate best when light levels are high, and they are primarily responsible for the ability to sense color
    cones
  12. a binocular cue for depth that is based on the extent to which the two eyes move inward, or converge, when looking at an object.
    convergence
  13. The transparent and protective outer covering of the eye
    cornea
  14. the process through which the eyes adjust to dim light
    dark adaptation
  15. the smallest detectable difference in the magnitude of two stimuli
    difference threshold
  16. cells in the visual cortex that respond to very specific visual events, such as bars of light at particular orientations
    feature detectors
  17. a psychological term used to describe the gustatory experience.  Flavor is influenced by taste, smell, and the visual appearance of food, as well as by expectations about the food's quality
    flavor
  18. the "central pit" area in the retina where the cone receptors are located
    fovea
  19. the idea that pitch perception is determined partly by the frequency or neural impulses traveling up the auditory pathway.
    frequency theory
  20. the idea that neural impulses generated by pain receptors can be blocked, or gated, in the spinal cord by signals produced in the brain
    gate-control theory
  21. the organizing principles of perception proposed by Gestalt psychologists.  These principles include the laws of proximity, similarity, closure, continuation, and common fate.
    Gestalt principles of organization
  22. the sense of taste
    gustation
  23. the dimension of light that produces color; hue is typically determined by the wavelength of light reflecting from an object
    hue
  24. the ring of colored tissue surrounding the pupil
    iris
  25. in perception, the ability to sense the position and movement of one's body parts
    kinesthesia
  26. the flexible piece of tissue that helps focus light toward the back of the eye
    lens
  27. the small part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is processed by the visual system
    light
  28. the portion between the eardrum and cochlea containing three small bones (the malleus, incus, and stapes) that help to intensify and prepare the sound vibrations for passage into the inner ear.
    middle ear
  29. cues for depth that require input from only one eye
    monocular depth cues
  30. the sense of smell
    olfaction
  31. a theory of color vision proposing that cells in the visual pathway increase their activation levels to one color and decrease their activation levels to another color---for example, increasing to red and decreasing to green.
    opponent-process theory
  32. an adaptive response by the body to any stimulus that is intense enough to cause tissue damage
    pain
  33. the collection of processes used to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of sensations
    perception
  34. perceiving the properties of an object to remain the same even though the physical properties of the sensory message are changing
    perceptual constancy
  35. inappropriate interpretations of physical reality.  Perceptual illusions often occur as a result of the brain's using otherwise adaptive organizing prinicples
    perceptual illusions
  36. an illusion of movement that occurs when stationary lights are flashed in succession
    phi phenomenon
  37. the external flap of tissue normally referred to as the "ear"; it helps capture sound
    pinna
  38. the psychological experience that results from the auditory processing of a particular frequency of sound
    pitch
  39. the idea that the location of the auditory receptor cells activated by movement of the basilar membrane underlies the perception of pitch
    place theory
  40. the field of psychology in which researchers search for ways to describe the transition from the physical stimulus to the psychological experience of that stimulus
    psychophysics
  41. the hole in the center of the eye that allows light to enter
    pupil
  42. in vision, the portion of the retina that, when stimulated, causes the activity of higher order neurons to change
    receptive field
  43. the idea proposed by Biederman that people recognize objects perceptually via smaller components called geons
    recognition by components
  44. the thin layer of tissue that covers the back of the eye and contains the light sensitive receptor cells for vision
    retina
  45. a binocular cue for depth that is based on location differences between the images in each eye
    retinal disparity
  46. receptor cells in the retina, located mainly around the sides, that transduce light energy into neural messages; these visual receptors are highly sensitive and are active in dim light.
    rods
  47. a receptor system attached to the inner ear that responds to movement and acceleration and to changes in upright posture.
    semicircular canals
  48. the elementary components, or building blocks, of an experience (such as a pattern of light and dark,a bitter taste, or a change in temperature).
    sensations
  49. the tendency of sensory systems to reduce sensitivity to a stimulus source that remains constant.
    sensory adaptation
  50. a technique used to determine the ability of someone to detect the presence of a stimulus
    signal detection
  51. the physical message delivered to the auditory system; a mechanical energy that requires a medium such as air or water in order to move
    sound
  52. the receptor cells on the tongue
    taste buds
  53. processing that is controlled by one's beliefs and expectations about how the world is organized
    top-down processing
  54. the process by which external messages are translated into the internal language of the brain
    transduction
  55. a theory of color vision proposing that color information is extracted by comparing the relative activations of three different types of cone receptors
    trichromatic theory
  56. the eardrum, which responds to incoming sound waves by vibrating
    tympanic membrane
  57. organs of the inner ear that contain receptors thought to be primarily responsible for balance.
    vestibular sacs
  58. the ability to process fine detail in vision
    visual acuity
  59. neurons that respond vigorously when the temperature of the skin increases
    warm fibers
  60. the principle stating that the ability to notice a difference in the magnitude of two stimuli is a constant proportion of the size of the standard stimulus.  Psychologically, the more intense a stimulus is to begin with, the more intense it will need to become for one to notice a change
    Weber's law

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