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In polar bonds, the partial charges (δ+ and δ-) are __. __ may or may not correspond to real charges.
In general, bonds between atoms with very large electronegativity differences (> 2) tend to be drawn as __.
In resonance, the actual molecule is said to be a __. Define delocalized.
- resonance hybrid
- spread out
Explain resonance- stablilized.
when the charge is spread out as opposed to localized, causing the molecule to become more stable
Although separate resonance forms don't exist, what can we do?
we can estimate their relative energies as if they did exist because more stable resonance forms are a better representation of the real molecule
We call the more stable resonance form the __ and the less the __.
- major contributor
- minor contributor
In drawing resonance, we try to __. The best candidates are those that __. Also, we look for the __.
- draw structures as low in energy as possible
- max number of octets and max number of bonds
- minimum amount of charge separation
Only __ can be delocalized. Unlike them, __ cannot and must remain in the same places, with the same bond distances and angles, in all the resonance contributors.
Negative charges are more stable on more __.
Structural formulas show what? What are the types?
- whch atoms are bonded to which
- complete Lewis structures and condensed structural formulas
Condensed structural formulas
written w/o showing all individual bonds
- aka: skeletal structure/ stickfigure
- often used for cyclic compounds and occasionallyfor noncyclic ones
In a stick figure, bonds are represented by __, and carbon atoms are present __.
- wherever two lines meet or a line begins or ends