Human growth & Development Ch. 2 Review

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K.Mac
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232206
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Human growth & Development Ch. 2 Review
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2013-08-31 22:03:59
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Psychology Human Growth
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Ch. 2 Review
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  1. Which theories in the text are described as "comprehensive, enduring, and widely applied"?
    grand
  2. Freud believed that the ______ was the focus of pleasurable sensation during infancy
    mouth
  3. Freud believed that sexual needs were quiet and that psychic energy was put into schoolwork and sports during the:
    latency stage
  4. What stage is industry versus inferiority
    4
  5. The behaviorist most associated with operant conditioning is
    B. F. Skinner
  6. In social learning theory, modeling is a process by which people
    observe the actions of others and then copy them
  7.  Because of his hard work, Roman is a successful member of his high school debate team. He looks forward to his future success on the college debate team. This is an example of
     self-efficacy
  8.  Piaget was primarily interested in
     how children think
  9.  In which of Piaget's stages would one expect to see the development of an interest in ethics, politics, and social and moral issues?
    formal operational
  10. When new information is inconsistent with what we already know, we may change our thinking to incorporate the new information. This would be an example of
     accommodation
  11.  According to sociocultural theory, human development is the result of an interaction between developing persons and their
    surrounding society and culture
  12. According to sociocultural theory, learning occurs after the mentor draws the learner into
    the zone of proximal development
  13. The zone of proximal development
     describes what the learner could understand with guidance
  14. Most developmentalists prefer an eclectic perspective so they can
    selectively use all the theories
  15. According to Freud, each stage of development in the first six years is characterized by
    sexual pleasure
  16. Marie smokes cigarettes and bites her nails. According to Freud, she is unconsciously stuck in which stage?
    oral
  17.  According to Freud, ______ is the most important activity during the anal stage.
    toilet training
  18. John, 72, is trying to make sense out of his life. He feels great disappointment when he thinks about the goals that he never reached. His behavior falls into which of Erikson's stages?
     integrity versus despair
  19. The type of learning in which a reinforcer or punishment follows a particular behavior is called
     operant conditioning
  20.  A feeling of self-confidence that an individual develops when he or she has high aspirations and notable achievements is
    self-efficacy
  21.  Research involving monkeys and surrogate mothers was conducted by
    Harry Harlow
  22. What did Harlow's research reveal about infants' attachment to their mothers
    They are based on comfort and touch
  23.  Who focused on how children think
     Piaget
  24.  According to Piaget, which period of cognitive development is characterized by magical and egocentric thinking
     preoperational
  25. Which of the following is NOT one of Piaget's periods of cognitive development?

    sensorimotor 
    postoperational 
    preoperational 
    formal operational
    postoperational
  26. Which theorist stressed the role of culture and society?
    Lev Vygotsky
  27. In sociocultural theory, the "zone" that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that a person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help is
    the zone of proximal development
  28. A psychologist who uses an eclectic approach during therapy
    uses several theoretical perspectives
  29. are theories that comprehensive, enduring, and widely applied. They include: psychoanalytic theory, behaviorism (or learning theory), and cognitive theory. Despite their impressive insights, these theories no longer seem as comprehensive as they once did.
    Grand theories
  30. helps us to understand how intellectual processes and thinking affect actions. Behaviorism has shown the effect of the immediate environment on behavior. Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of the importance of early childhood social and emotional experiences.
    Cognitive theory

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