Praxis Vocab

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Praxis Vocab
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  1. Ziggurat
    stepped mountain made of brick covered earth
  2. Zen
    a Chinese and Japanese school of Buddhism that believes that enlightenment can be attained through meditation, self-contemplation, and intuition
  3. Woodblock Printing
    a process that involves transferring and cutting pictures into wood blocks, inking the raised surface of the blocks, and printing
  4. Wet media
    media in which the coloring agent is suspended in liquid, such as ink and paints
  5. Watercolor
    transparent pigments mixed with water
  6. Warm Colors
    colors suggesting warmth; contain red and yellow
  7. Volume
    referring to the space within a form; or within a building when talking about architecture
  8. Visual Arts
    unique expressions of ideas, beliefs, experiences, and feelings presented in well-designed visual forms
  9. Vault
    an arched roof or covering made of brick, stone, or concrete; a dome is a hemispherical vault
  10. Variety
    principle of design; referring to a way of combining art elements in involved ways to create intricate and complex relationships
  11. Vanishing Point
    perspective drawing, the point at which receding parallel lines seem to converge
  12. Value
    element of art; describing the lightness or darkness of a hue
  13. Unity
    look and feel of wholeness or oneness in a work of art
  14. Ukiyo-e
    Japanese painting style, which means pictures of the passing world
  15. Tympanum
    a half-round panel that fills the space between the lintel and the arch over a doorway of a church
  16. Trompe I'oiel
    a painting technique designed to foot a viewer's eye by creating a very realistic illusion of 3D qualities on a flat surface
  17. Triumphal arch
    a heavily decorated arch often consisting of a large central opening and two smaller openings, one on each side
  18. Triptych
    a painting on 3 hinged panels that can be folded together
  19. Transept
    an aisle that cuts directly across the nave and the side aisles in a basilica and forms a cross-shaped floor plan
  20. Totem Poles
    tall wood posts carved and painted with a series of animal symbols associated with a particular family or clan
  21. Thrust
    the outward forced produced by the weight of an arch or vault; it is counterbalanced by buttressing
  22. Shape
    element of art; referring to a 2D area clearly set off by one or more of the visual elements such as color, value, line, texture, and space
  23. Sipapu
    hole in the floor of a kiva that symbolized the place through which the Pueblo people originally emerged into this world
  24. Sketch
    quick drawing that captures the appearance or action of a place or situation; are often done in preparation for larger, more detailed works of art
  25. Slip
    mixture of clay and water used in the making of pottery to cement together parts that have been formed separately
  26. Solvent
    material used to thin the binder in paint
  27. Space
    element of art; referring to the distance or area between, around, above, below, or within things
  28. Stained Glass
    art of cutting colored glass into different shapes and joining them together with lead strips to create a pictorial window design
  29. Stele
    inscribed stone pillar
  30. Still Life
    drawing or painting of an arrangement of inanimate objects, such as food, plants, pots, etc.
  31. Stupa
    small, round burial shrine erected over a grave site to hold relics of the Buddha
  32. Style
    artist's personal way of using elements and principles of art to reproduce what is seen and to express ideas and feelings
  33. Stylobate
    top step of a 3-step platform used to support a row of colums
  34. Stylus
    pointed, needle-like tool
  35. Surrealism
    20th century art style in which dreams, fantasy, and the subconscious served as the inspiration for artists
  36. Symbol
    form, image, or subject representing a meaning other than the one with which it is usually associated
  37. Symmetrical Balance
    way of organizing the parts of a design so that one side duplicates or mirrors the other; formal balance
  38. Tactile
    of or relating to the sense of touch
  39. Tapestry
    textile wall hanging that is woven, painted, or embroidered with decorative designs or colorful scenes
  40. Technique
    any method of working with art materials to create an art object; manner in which an artist uses the technical skills of a particular art form
  41. Tempera
    paint made of dry pigments, or colors, which are mixed with a binding material
  42. Tensile Strength
    the capacity of a material to withstand bending
  43. Tertiary Colors
    colors produced by mixing unequal amounts of 2 primary colors; Intermediate colors
  44. Texture
    element of art; referring to the way things feel, or look as if they might feel if touched
  45. Shaman
    leader believed to have healing powers
  46. Shaft
    main weight-bearing portion of a column
  47. Serigraph
    screen print that has been handmade by an artist
  48. Serfs
    poor peasants who did not have land
  49. Secondary colors
    colors obtained by mixing equal amounts of 2 primary colors; orange, green, and violet
  50. Sculpture in the round
    freestanding sculpture surrounded on all sides by space
  51. Sculpture
    3D work of art; can be carved, modeled, constructed, or cast
  52. Scroll
    long roll of illustrated parchment or silk
  53. Screen Printing
    paint is forced through a screen onto paper or fabric
  54. Satire
    use of sarcasm or ridicule to expose and denounce vice or folly
  55. Sarcophagus
    coffin, usually of stone, but can be wood, metal or clay; in ancient times they were often decorated with carvings of the deceased or with some religious or mythological subject
  56. Salon
    annual exhibition of art held by the academics in Paris and London
  57. Romanticism
    style of art that portrayed dramatic and exotic subjects perceived with strong feelings
  58. Romanesque
    artistic style that, in most areas, took place during the 11th and 12th centuries; most apparent in architecture and was characterized by the round arch, large size, and solid appearance
  59. Rococo Art
    11th century art style that placed emphasis on portraying the carefree life of the aristocracy rather than on grand heroes or pious martyrs
  60. Rhythm
    principle of design; referring to the careful placement of repeated elements in a work of art to cause a visual tempo or beat
  61. Repetition
    principle of design; referring to a way of combining art elements so that the elements are used over and over
  62. Renaissance
    period of great awakening; rebirth
  63. Relief Printing
    image to be printed is raised from the background
  64. Relief
    type of sculpture in which forms project from a background
  65. High Relief
    forms stand far our from the background
  66. Low Relief
    sculpture is shallow; Bas Relief
  67. Regionalism
    popular style of art in which artists painted the American scenes and events that were typical of their regions of America
  68. Realism
    mid 19th century style of art representing everyday scenes and events as they actually looked
  69. Raking Cornice
    sloping element that slants above the horizontal cornice
  70. Protestant Reformation
    movement in which a group of Christians led by Martin Luther left the Catholic Church in revolt to form their own religion in 1517
  71. Proportion
    principle of design; concerned with the relationship of certain elements to the whole and to each other
  72. Propaganda
    information or ideas purposely spread to influence public opinion
  73. Prodigal
    referring to the recklessly wasteful son in the painting by Bartolome Murillo
  74. Principles of Design
    different ways that the elements of art can be used in a work of art; balance, emphasis, harmony, variety, gradation, movement, rhythm, and proportion
  75. Primary Colors
    basic colors of red, blue, and yellow from which it is possible to mix all of the other colors of the spectrum
  76. Pre-Columbian
    term used when referring to the various cultures and civilizations  found throughout the Americans before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492
  77. Potlatch
    an elaborate ceremonial feast that enabled members of one Kwakiutl clan to honor those of another while adding to their own prestige
  78. Post-Impressionism
    French art movement that immediately followed Impressionism; artists involved showed a greater concern for structure and form than did the Impressionist artists
  79. Post and Lintel
    simplest and oldest way of constructing an opening; 2 vertical posts were used to support a horizontal beam, or lintel, creating a covered space
  80. Portrait
    image of a person, especially of the face; can be made of any sculptural material or any 2D medium
  81. Portal
    door or gate, usually of importance or large in size; most Catholic cathedrals had 3 portals in the main facade
  82. Porcelain
    fine-grained, high-quality form of china made primarily from a white clay know as kaolin
  83. Pop Art
    an art style that portrayed images of the popular culture such as comic strips and commercial products
  84. Plane
    surface; Cezanne applied patches of color placed side by side so that each one represented a separate place
  85. Pilgrimage
    journey to a holy place
  86. Pilasters
    flat, rectangular columns attached to a wall; maybe decorated or used to buttress the wall
  87. Pigment
    finely ground powder that gives every paint its color
  88. Pieta
    sculpture or painting of the Virgin Mary mourning over the body of Christ; Italian word for pity
  89. Pier
    massive vertical pillar that is used to support an arch or vault made of cut stone
  90. Photography
    technique of capturing optical images on light-sensitive surfaces
  91. Photo-Realism
    an art movement of the late 20th century in which the style is so realistic it looks photographic
  92. Philanthropy
    an active effort to promote human welfare
  93. Pharaoh
    an Egyptian king or ruler, also considered to be a god in the eyes of the people
  94. Perspective
    method for representing 3D objects on a 2D surface; Aerial and Linear
  95. Pediment
    a triangular section of the top of a building framed by a cornice, along with a sloping member called a raking cornice
  96. Patina
    surface film, produced naturally by oxidation, on bronze or copper; can be produced artificially by the application of acid or paint to a surface
  97. Pastel
    pigments mixed with gum and pressed into a stick form for use as chalky crayons
  98. Parable
    story that contains as symbolic message
  99. Paleolithic Period
    historical period believed to have lasted from 30,000 BC until about 10,000 BC; Old Stone Age
  100. Painterly
    painting technique in which forms are created with patches of color rather than with hard, precise edges
  101. Pagoda
    tower several stories high with roofs slightly curved upward at the edges
  102. Op Art
    20th century art style in which artists sought to create an impressionism of movement on the picture surface by means of optical illusion
  103. Oil Paints
    mixture of dry paints pigments with oils, turpentine, and sometimes varnish
  104. Obelisk
    tall, four sided shaft of stone, usually tapering, that rises to a pyramidal point
  105. Oba
    African ruler or king
  106. Nonobjective Art
    any artwork that contains no apparent reference to reality
  107. Niche
    recess in a wall
  108. Neoclassicism
    19th century French art style that sought to revive the ideals of ancient Greek and Roman art and was characterized by balanced compositions, flowing contour lines, and noble gestures and expressions
  109. Nave
    long, wide, center aisle
  110. Mural
    large design or picture, painted directly on the wall of a public building
  111. Muezzin
    prayer caller
  112. Movement
    principle of design; used to create the look and feeling of action and to guide the viewer's eye throughout the work of art
  113. Mosque
    Muslim place of worship
  114. Mosaic
    decoration made with small pieces of glass and stone set in cement
  115. Monochromatic
    consisting of only a single color
  116. Monasticism
    way of life in which individuals joined together in isolated communities called monasteries spend their days in prayer and self-denial
  117. Modeling Tools
    tools for working with, or modeling clay
  118. Modeling
    sculpture technique in which a soft, pliable material is built up and shaped into a sculptural form
  119. Mobile
    construction made of shapes that are balanced and arranged on wire arms and suspended from a ceiling or base so as to move freely in the air currents
  120. Mixed Media
    use of several different materials in one work of art
  121. Minaret
    spiral tower attached to a mosque
  122. Mihrab
    niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the direction of Mecca and is large enough to accommodate a single standing figure
  123. Megalith
    large monument created from huge stone slabs
  124. Medium
    material used by an artist to produce a work of art
  125. Meditation
    act of focusing thoughts on a single object or idea; important element in the Buddhist religion
  126. Mastaba
    low, rectangular Egyptian tomb made of mud brick with sloping sides and a flat top, covering a burial chamber
  127. Mannerism
    European art style that rejected the calm balance of the High Renaissance in favor of emotion and distortion
  128. Lost Wax
    wax model is coated to form a mold, heated in a kiln, and the wax melts and is allowed to run out; cire-perdue
  129. Logo
    graphic representation of a company name or trademark
  130. Lithography
    printmaking method in which the image to be printed is drawn on a limestone, zinc, or aluminum surface with a special greasy crayon
  131. Literal Quality
    realistic presentation of subject matter in a work of art; aesthetic quality favored by imitationalism
  132. Literal
    true to fact; the realistic presentation of the subject matter
  133. Lintel
    horizontal beam spanning an opening between here, to the realistic presentation of subject matter
  134. Linear Perspective
    graphic system that showed artists how to create the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface
  135. Linear
    painting technique in which importance is placed on contours or outlines
  136. Line
    Element of art; refers to the continuous mark made on some surface by a moving point
  137. Landscape
    painting, photograph, or other work of art that shows natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and lakes
  138. Kouros
    a Greek statue of a male youth who may have been a god or an athlete
  139. Kore
    a Greek statue of a clothed maiden
  140. Koran
    holy scripture of Islam
  141. Kiva
    circular underground sculpture that serves as a spiritual and social center in Pueblo cultures
  142. Kinetic Art
    sculptural form that actually moves in space
  143. Keystone
    the central and highest top stone in an arch
  144. Kente cloth
    brilliantly colored and patterned fabric
  145. Ionic order
    columns with an elaborate base and a capital carved into double scrolls that look like the horns of a ram
  146. Inuit
    Eskimos inhabiting the area from Greenland to western arctic Canada
  147. Intensity
    quality of brightness and purity of a color
  148. Intaglio
    process in which ink is forced to fill lines cut into a metal surface
  149. Impressionism
    style of painting in which artists captured the impression of what they eye sees at a given moment and the effect of sunlight on the subject
  150. Imitationalism
    theory of art that places emphasis on the literal qualities; most important thing about a work of art is the realistic representation of subject matter
  151. Illuminations
    manuscript paintings, particularly those done during the Medieval period
  152. Illuminated Manuscripts
    a manuscript, popular during the Medieval period, in which the pages are decorated with silver, gold, and rich colors; contain small pictures know as illuminations or miniatures
  153. Humanism
    interest in the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome
  154. Hue
    color's name
  155. Hieroglyphics
    characters and picture-writing used by the ancient Egyptians
  156. Hellenistic
    period of Mediterranean culture influenced by Greece following the conquests of Alexander the Great; expression of inner emotions were more important than beauty to the artists of this period
  157. Harmony
    principle of design; referring to the way of combining similar elements in an artwork to accent their similarities
  158. Hard-Edged
    20th century movement in painting in which the edges of shapes are crisp and precise rather than blurred
  159. Groin Vault
    vault formed when 2 barrel vaults meet at right angles
  160. Groits
    oral historians who are also musicians and performers
  161. Gradation
    principle of design; referring to a way of combining art elements by using a series of gradual changes in those elements
  162. Gothic
    period that began around the middle of the 20th century and lasted to the end of the 15th or 16th centuries
  163. Gesso
    mixture of glue and a white pigment such as plaster, chalk, or white clay
  164. Geometric Period
    name given to the years 900-700 BC when geometric shapes were used on Greek pottery
  165. Genre
    representation of people, subjects, and scenes from everyday life
  166. Gargoyle
    grotesque carved monsters that project out from the upper portions of huge churches
  167. Function
    refers to the intended use or purpose of an object; applied to manufactured products, particularly crafts and designs for architecture
  168. Frieze
    decorative horizontal band running across the upper part of a wall
  169. Fresco
    method of painting in which pigments are applied to a thin layer of wet plaster so that they will be absorbed and the painting becomes part of the wall
  170. Formalism
    theory of art that emphasizes design qualities; most important thing about a work of art is the effective organization of the elements of art through the use of principles
  171. Form
    element of art; describes an object with 3 dimensions
  172. Foreshortening
    way of drawing figures or objects according to the rules of perspective so that they appear to recede or protrude into 3D space
  173. Flying Buttress
    buttress in which it is not in contact with the wall all the way to the ground
  174. Fine Arts
    sculpture, painting, and architectural arts that generally have no practical function and are valued by their success in communicating ideas or feelings
  175. Feudalism
    system in which weak noblemen gave up their lands and much of their freedom to more powerful lords in return for protection
  176. Fauvism
    early 20th century style of painting in France; leader of the Fauves was Henri Matissse
  177. Fauves
    artists whose paintings were so simple in design, so brightly colored, and so loose in brushwork that an enraged critic named them Fauves or Wild Beasts
  178. Facade
    front of a building that accents the entrance and usually prepares the visitor for the architectural style found inside
  179. Expressive Qualities
    those qualities having to do with the meaning, mood, or idea communicated to the viewer through a work of art; favored by Emotionalists
  180. Expressionism
    20th century art movement in which artists tried to communicate their strong emotional feelings through artworks
  181. Etching
    to engrave a metal plate with acid; you can make a print off of an etching by inking the surface of the engraved metal plate
  182. Environmental Art
    outdoor artworks that are designed to become part of the natural landscape
  183. Entablature
    the upper portion of a classical building that rests on the columns and consists of the lintel, frieze, and cornice
  184. Engraving
    method of cutting or incising a design into a material, usually metal, with a sharp tool; a print can be made inking the engraved surface
  185. Emphasis
    principle of design; referring to the way of combining elements to stress the differences between those elements
  186. Emotionalism
    theory of art that places emphasis on the expressive qualities; most important thing about a work of art is the vivid communication of moods, feelings, and ideas
  187. Elements of Art
    basic components or building blocks, used by artists when producing works of art; color, value, line, shape, form, texture, and space
  188. Eclectic Style
    style of composed elements drawn from various sources
  189. Early Medieval
    period that dates from C AD 476 to 1050
  190. Dynasty
    a period during which a single family provided a succession of rulers
  191. Dry Media
    media that is applied dry and include pencil, charcoal, crayon, and chalk or pastel
  192. Doric Order
    Simple, heavy columns without a base, topped by a broad, plain capital
  193. Dome
    hemispheric vault or ceiling placed on walls that enclose a circular or square space
  194. Diagonal
    Having slanted direction; suggests movement and tension
  195. Design Qualities
    how well the work is organized or put together; favored by Formalism
  196. Design
    skilled blend of the elements and principles
  197. Dada
    early 20th century art movement that ridiculed contemporary culture and traditional art forms
  198. Curator
    museum employee responsible for securing and exhibiting artworks for the general public and scholars to view
  199. Cuneiform
    writing with wedge-shaped characters
  200. Cubism
    20th century art movement in which artists tried to show all sides of 3D objects on a flat canvas
  201. Criteria
    standards for judgment; rules or principles used for evaluation
  202. Counter-Reformation
    an effort by the Catholic Church to lure people back and to regain its former power
  203. Cornice
    horizontal element positioned across the top of the frieze
  204. Corinthian Order
    columns with elongated capitals decorated with leaves
  205. Cool Colors
    associated with water, sky, springs, foliage, and suggest coolness; contain blue and green and appear on the color wheel opposite of the warm colors
  206. Convex
    outwardly rounded
  207. Contrast
    principle of design; closely related to emphasis and refers to the way of combining art elements to stress the differences between those elements
  208. Contrapposto
    way of sculpting a human figure in a natural pose with the weight of the body balanced on one leg while the other is free and relaxed
  209. Contour Line
    line or lines that surround and define the edges of an object or figure
  210. Contour Drawing
    drawing in which contour lines alone are used to represent subject matter
  211. Content
    subject matter in a work of art
  212. Concave
    inwardly curved
  213. Complementary Colors
    colors that are directly opposite each other on the color wheel; when mixed together can form gray; red and green, blue and orange, purple and yellow
  214. Column
    upright pose used to bear weight; usually consist of a base at the bottom, a shaft, and a capital
  215. Color
    element of art; made up of 3 distinct qualities: hue, intensity, and value
  216. Colonnade
    line of columns supporting lintels or arches
  217. Collage
    technique that involves adding materials such as newsprint clippings, wallpaper pieces, or photographs to the surface of a picture
  218. Coffer
    indented panel
  219. Cloister
    an open court or garden and the covered walkways surrounding it
  220. Chiaroscuro
    arrangement of dramatic contrasts of light and shadow
  221. Catacombs
    underground tunnels in which early Christians met and buried their dead; some contained chapels and meeting rooms
  222. Casting
    the process of pouring melted-down metal or other liquid substances into a mold to harden
  223. Carving
    the process of cutting or chipping a form from a given mass of material to create a sculpture
  224. Capital
    top element of pillar or column
  225. Candid
    unposed views of people
  226. Campanile
    bell tower near, or attached to, a church
  227. Byzantine Art
    art of Eastern Roman Empire; paintings and mosaics are characterized by a rich use of color and figures that seem flat and stiff
  228. Buttress
    support or brace that counteracts the outward thrust of an arch or vault
  229. Burin
    steel engraving tool
  230. Buddhism
    religious belief based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, who held that suffering is a part of life but that mental and moral self-purification can bring about a state of illumination, carrying the believer beyond suffering and material existence
  231. Brayer
    roller used to ink a surface by hand
  232. Bodhisattva
    a Buddha-to-be
  233. Binder
    liquid that holds together the grains of pigment in paint
  234. Baths
    large enclosed Roman structures that contained libraries, lecture rooms, gymnasiums, pools, shops, restaurants, and pleasant walkways
  235. Basilica
    type of public building erected to hold large numbers of people
  236. Bas Relief
    sculpture in which the forms project only slightly from the background
  237. Barrel Vault
    a high-round stone ceiling made by placing a series of round arches from front to back; tunnel vault
  238. Baroque Art
    art style characterized by movement, vivid contrast, and emotional intensity
  239. Balance
    principle of design; refers to the way of combining art elements to create a feeling of equilibrium or stability in a work
  240. Axis Line
    imaginary line that is traced through an object or several objects in a picture
  241. Atmospheric Perspective
    perspective that uses hue, value, and intensity to show distance in a painting; aerial perspective
  242. Asymmetrical Balance
    way of organizing the parts of a design so that one side differs from the other without destroying the overall harmony; informal balance
  243. Assembly
    process in which the artist gathers and joins together a variety of different materials to construct a 3D work of art
  244. Assemblage
    number of 3D objects brought together to form a work of art
  245. Ashcan School
    popular name identifying the group of artists who made realistic pictures of the most ordinary features of the contemporary scene
  246. Armory Show
    first large exhibition of modern art in American, held in 1913
  247. Aristocracy
    persons of high rank and privilege
  248. Architecture
    the art and science of designing and constructing structures that enclose space to meet a variety of human needs
  249. Aqueduct
    a channel system that carried water from mountain streams into cities by using gravitational flow
  250. Apse
    semicircular area at the end of the nave of a church
  251. Applied Arts
    design or decoration of functional objects to make them pleasing to the eye
  252. Analogous Colors
    colors that are next to each other on the color wheel and are closely related; blue, blue-green, green
  253. Ambulatory
    semi-circular aisle curving around the apse of a church behind the main altar
  254. Alcazar
    fortified Moorish palace
  255. Aesthetician
    scholar who specializes in the study of the nature of beauty and art
  256. Aesthetics
    branch of philosophy concerned with identifying the clues within works of art that can be used to understand, judge, and defend judgments about those works
  257. Aesthetic Qualities
    qualities that can increase our understanding of artworks and serve as the criteria on which judgments are based
  258. Aerial Perspective
    achieved by using hue, value, and intensity to show distance in paintings; atmospheric perspective
  259. Adze
    an ax-like tool with an arched blade at right angles to the handle
  260. Adobe
    sun-dried clay
  261. Academies
    art schools
  262. Abstract Expressionism
    20th century painting style in which artists applied paint freely to huge canvases in an effort to show feelings and emotions rather than realistic subject matter
  263. Abstract Art
    artworks that stress the importance of the elements and principles rather than the subject matter; artists select and then exaggerate or simplify the forms suggested by the world around them
  264. Sfumato
    painting technique in which there are no harsh outlines, and areas of different colours blend together
  265. Underpainting
    painting that is intended to be painted over in a system of working in layers
  266. Wet-On-Wet
    painting technique, used mostly in oil painting, in which layers of wet paint are applied to previous layers of wet paint; alla prima
  267. Fresco-secco
    fresco painting technique in which pigments ground in water are tempered using egg yolk or whole egg mixed with water which are applied to plaster that has been moistened to simulate fresh plaster
  268. Pastiglia
    Italian term meaning "pastework", is low relief decoration, normally modelled in gesso or white lead, applied to build up a surface that may then be gilded or painted, or left plain
  269. Fore-Edge Painting
    a scene painted on the edges of the pages of a book
  270. Dress Coat Painting
    style of genre painting and it represented scenes set in the 18th century; named from the garment in fashion among the gentlemen of that period
  271. Impasto
    where paint is laid on an area of the surface very thickly so the brushstrokes are visible; paint can also be mixed right on the canvas; when dry it provides texture so much that the paint appears to be coming out of the canvas

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