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  1. Clinical Pharmacology
    the study of drugs in humans
  2. Drug
    any chemical that can affect living processes
  3. Pharmacology
    the study of drugs and their interactions with living systems
  4. Therapeutics(pharmacotherapeutics)
    the use of drugs to diagnose, prevent or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy; (medical use of drugs)
  5. Airborne Transmission
    passage of microorganisms suspended in the air on water droplets or dust particles that enter the host by inhalation.
  6. Antibody
    immunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen
  7. Antigen
    forgeign material, usually a bacteria capable of inducing a specific immune response.
  8. Asepsis
    absence of disease producing microorganisms; being free of infection
  9. Body Substance Isolation
    technique based upon the premise that all body substances may contain pathogens. Never touch with the bare hand anything wet that comes from the body cavity.
  10. Carrier
    person or animal who is without signs of illness but who have pathogens on or within body that can be transferred to others.
  11. Colonization
    growth of microorganisms in or on the body. The presence and multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion or damage. The infected individual shows no signs or symptoms of infection, while the potential to infect others still exists.
  12. Contact Transmission
    physical transfer of an organism between an infected or colonized person and a susceptible host involving direct or indirect contact.
  13. Convalescent period
    stage of an infection that represents recovery from the infection.
  14. Disinfectant
    substance, usually intended for use on inanimate objects, that destroy pathogens, but generally not spores.
  15. Droplet
    inhalation of respiratory pathogenic microorganisms suspended on
  16. Transmission
    liquid particles exhaled by someone already infected

    ex. a person suffering from an upper respiratory infection sneezes, allowing the microorganism to exit the body and inhaled by another person.
  17. Enodenous
    infection in which the causative(cause) organisms comes from microbial life the person itself harbors.
  18. Full Stage of Illness
    stage of an infection characterized by the presence of specific signs and symptoms.
  19. Immune response
    specific reactions in the body as it response to an invading foreign protein such as bacteria, of even in some cases the bodys own protein.
  20. Incubation period
    stage of infection between exposure to an infectious organism and the appearance of clinical systems of disease.
  21. Inflammatory Response
    Localized response of the body to injury or the infection; protective mechanism that eliminates invading pathogens and allow for tissue repair to occur.
  22. Medical Asepsis
    techniques used to control and to reduce the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. A medical aseptic technique is hand washing.
  23. Reservoir
    place where microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. 

    ex. humans,animals,and inanimate objects, such as water,tabletops and doorknobs.
  24. Resident bacteria
    microorganisms that normally live on a person's skin.
  25. Systemic symptoms
    symptoms manifested throughout the entire body.
  26. Transient Bacteria
    microorganism picked up on the skin as a result of normal activities, which can be removed readily.
  27. Vehicle Transmission
    transfer of microorganisms by way of contaminated items.

    ex. blood can carry hep and HIV
  28. virulence
    ability to produce disease
  29. VRE
    • organism that resists the effects of the antibiotic Vancomycin. For many patients infected with     There is no known effective medication. is one of the common causes of nosocomial infection and is easily transmitted on the hands of the health care worker.
  30. Adventitious sounds
    abnormal breath sounds heard over the lung
  31. Antipyretic
    agent that reduces fever

    ex. aspirin
  32. Apnea
    absence of breathing
  33. Arrythmia
    irregular pattern of heart beat
  34. Ausculatory
    listening for sounds within the body
  35. Ausculatory Gap
    Temporary disappearance of the Korotkoff sounds, it typically occurs between the 1st and 2nd sounds
  36. Biots respiration
    Respirations of the same depth followed by a period of apnea
  37. Blood pressure
    force of blood against the artery walls
  38. Bradycardia
    abnormally slow rate of pulse; <60 BPM
  39. Cardinal signs
     temperature, pulse, respiratory rates and blood pressure

    AKA- vital signs
  40. Cheyne-Stokes respiration
    gradual increase and the gradual decrease in depth of respirations followed by a period of apnea.
  41. Circadian rhythm
    rhythm that completes a full cycle every 24 hours;

    diurnal rhythm
  42. Conduction
    transfer of heat to another object during direct contact
  43. Convection
    dissemination of heat by motion between areas of unequal density the body
  44. Core temperature
    temperature of internal areas of the body
  45. Dyspnea
    difficult breathing
  46. Dysrhythmia
    irregular pattern of heartbeat; synonym is arrhythmia
  47. Essential hypertension
    abnormally elevated blood pressure with no known cause.
  48. Eupnea
    normal respirations
  49. External respiration
    act of lung ventilation, oxygen absorption and carbon dioxide elimination
  50. Exhalation
    act of breathing out
  51. Friction rub
    crackling sound heard in the chest cavity, caused by inflamed pleura rubbing against the chest wall.
  52. Hyperpyrexia 
    high fever, above 105.8
  53. Hypertension
    blood pressure elevated above the upper limit of normal
  54. Hypotension
    blood pressure below the lower limit of normal
  55. Inhalation
    act of breathing in
  56. Intermittent fever
    body temperature that alternates between a period of fever and a period of normal or subnormal temperature
  57. Internal respiration
    act of using oxygen by body cells.

    tissue respiration
  58. Korotkoff sounds
    series of sounds that correspond to changes in blood flow through an artery as pressure is released
  59. Lysis
    gradual return of an elevated body temperature to normal
  60. Orhopnea
    type of dyspnea in which breathing becomes easier when the patient sits or stands
  61. Orthostatic hypotension
    temporary fall in blood pressure associated with assuming an upright position

    postural hypotension
  62. Palpitation
    perception of ones own heartbeat
  63. peripheral resistance 
    restraint to blood flow created by arterial walls in a partial state of contraction 
  64. Polypnea
    Fast respiratory rate

  65. Premature beat
    irregular rhythm in which a heartbeat occurs sooner that the pace at which previous ones were noted
  66. Primary hypertension
    abnormally elevated blood pressure with no known cause
  67. Pulse deficit
    difference between the apical and radial pulse rates.
  68. Pulse pressure
    difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures
  69. Pyrexic
    elevation above the upper limit of normal body temperature.

    aka fever
  70. Relapsing fever
    abnormal lung sound that returns to normal for at least a day after which fever returns
  71. Rales/Crackles
    abnormal lung sounds described as crackling in nature
  72. Remittent fever
    body temperature that fluctuates several degrees above normal, but does not reach normal between fluctuations
  73. Rhonchi/Sonorous wheeze
    abnormal continuous sound characterized by a characterized by a sonorous, dry, coarse sound heard over the large airway.

    can be cleared with a cough
  74. Set point
    the level at which the hypothalamus attempts to maintain body temperature
  75. Stertorous breathing
    noisy respirations
  76. Stridor
    harsh, high-pitched sound usually heard on inspiration when upper airways become narrowed
  77. Tachycardia
    abnormally rapid rate; >100 BPM
  78. Wheeze
    continuous, high-pitched sound heard over the small bronchial tubes.
Card Set:
2013-09-05 19:59:50

definition of terms
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