the study of drugs and their interactions with living systems
the use of drugs to diagnose, prevent or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy; (medical use of drugs)
passage of microorganisms suspended in the air on water droplets or dust particles that enter the host by inhalation.
immunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen
forgeign material, usually a bacteria capable of inducing a specific immune response.
absence of disease producing microorganisms; being free of infection
Body Substance Isolation
technique based upon the premise that all body substances may contain pathogens. Never touch with the bare hand anything wet that comes from the body cavity.
person or animal who is without signs of illness but who have pathogens on or within body that can be transferred to others.
growth of microorganisms in or on the body. The presence and multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion or damage. The infected individual shows no signs or symptoms of infection, while the potential to infect others still exists.
physical transfer of an organism between an infected or colonized person and a susceptible host involving direct or indirect contact.
stage of an infection that represents recovery from the infection.
substance, usually intended for use on inanimate objects, that destroy pathogens, but generally not spores.
inhalation of respiratory pathogenic microorganisms suspended on
liquid particlesexhaled by someone already infected
ex. a person suffering from an upper respiratory infection sneezes, allowing the microorganism to exit the body and inhaled by another person.
infection in which the causative(cause) organisms comes from microbial life the person itself harbors.
Full Stage of Illness
stage of an infection characterized by the presence of specific signs and symptoms.
specific reactions in the body as it response to an invading foreign protein such as bacteria, of even in some cases the bodys own protein.
stage of infection between exposure to an infectious organism and the appearance of clinical systems of disease.
Localized response of the body to injury or the infection; protective mechanism that eliminates invading pathogens and allow for tissue repair to occur.
techniques used to control and to reduce the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. A medical aseptic technique is hand washing.
place where microorganisms can thrive and reproduce.
ex. humans,animals,and inanimate objects, such as water,tabletops and doorknobs.
microorganisms that normally live on a person's skin.
symptoms manifested throughout the entire body.
microorganism picked up on the skin as a result of normal activities, which can be removed readily.
transfer of microorganisms by way of contaminated items.
ex. blood can carry hep and HIV
ability to producedisease
organism that resists the effects of the antibiotic Vancomycin.For many patients infected with There is no known effective medication. is one of the common causes of nosocomial infection and is easily transmitted on the hands of the health care worker.
abnormal breath sounds heard over the lung
agent that reduces fever
absence of breathing
irregular pattern of heart beat
listening for sounds within the body
Temporary disappearance of the Korotkoffsounds, it typically occurs between the 1st and 2ndsounds
Respirations of the same depth followed by a period of apnea
forceof blood against the artery walls
abnormally slow rate of pulse; <60 BPM
temperature, pulse, respiratory rates and blood pressure
AKA- vital signs
gradual increase and the gradual decrease in depth of respirations followed by a period of apnea.
rhythm that completes a full cycle every 24hours;
transfer of heat to another object during direct contact
dissemination of heat by motion between areas of unequal density the body
temperature of internal areas of the body
irregular pattern of heartbeat; synonym is arrhythmia
abnormally elevatedblood pressure with no known cause.
act of lung ventilation, oxygen absorption and carbon dioxide elimination
act of breathing out
crackling sound heard in the chest cavity, caused by inflamed pleura rubbing against the chest wall.
high fever, above 105.8
blood pressure elevated abovethe upper limit of normal
blood pressure below the lower limit of normal
act of breathing in
body temperature that alternates between a period of fever and a period of normal or subnormal temperature
act of using oxygen by body cells.
series of sounds that correspond to changes in blood flow through an artery as pressure is released
gradual return of an elevated body temperature to normal
type of dyspnea in which breathing becomes easier when the patient sits or stands
temporary fall in blood pressure associated with assuming an upright position
perception of ones own heartbeat
restraint to blood flow created by arterial walls in a partial state of contraction
Fast respiratory rate
irregular rhythm in which a heartbeat occurs sooner that the pace at which previous ones were noted
abnormally elevated blood pressure with no known cause
difference between the apical and radial pulse rates.
difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures
elevation above the upper limit of normal body temperature.
abnormal lung sound that returns to normal for at least a day after which fever returns
abnormal lung sounds described as crackling in nature
body temperature that fluctuates several degrees above normal, but does not reach normal between fluctuations
abnormal continuous sound characterized by a characterized by a sonorous, dry, coarse sound heard over the large airway.
can be cleared with a cough
the level at which the hypothalamus attempts to maintain body temperature
harsh, high-pitched sound usually heard on inspiration when upper airways become narrowed
abnormally rapid rate; >100 BPM
continuous, high-pitched sound heard over the small bronchial tubes.