Solving Problems and Making Decisions

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  1. System 1
    A way of thinking that we use for quick, automatic processes such as recognizing faces and routine actions, and for questions we think are easy

    Proceeds unconsciously, or at least without much effort
  2. System 2
    A way of thinking that we use for mathematical calculations, evaluating evidence, and anything else that requires attention.

    We rely on system 1 more because it requires less time and energy
  3. Algorithm
    A system 2 explicit procedure for calculating an answer or testing every hypothesis
  4. Heuristic
    A strategy for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess

    • Ex: If you want to guess which child is the oldest, choose the tallest
    • Ex: People assume that if directions are hard to read, the task will be hard

    Heuristics use system 1
  5. Maximizing
    Thoroughly considering as many choices as possible to find the best one

    Ex: If you have a choice with much at stake (building a safe bridge over a river)
  6. Satisficing
    Searching only until you find something satisfactory

    Ex: Most of our daily decisions
  7. Representativeness Heuristic
    The assumption that an item that resembles members of a category is probably also in the category

    Ex: duck
  8. Base-rate information
    To decide if something belongs to one category or the other, you should consider the base-rate information-- that is, how common the two categories are
  9. Availability Heuristic
    The tendency to assume that if we easily think of examples of a category, then that category must be common

    Ex: During the months after the September 11th attacks, many people drove instead of taking planes

    This is because memories of your most extreme experiences are easily available
  10. Critical Thinking
    The careful evaluation of evidence for and against any conclusion
  11. Confirmation bias
    Accepting a hypothesis and then looking for evidence to support it instead of considering other possibilities

    Ex: Religion

    Accuse opponents of being biased for some reason
  12. Functional Fixedness
    A special case of confirmation bias. The tendency to adhere to a single approach or the single way of testing an item
  13. Framing Effect
    The tendency to answer a question differently when it is framed differently is called the framing effect

    (5 today and 0 a month from now, or 0 today and 6.20 a month from now)
  14. Sunk Cost Effect
    The willingness to do something because of money or effort already spent

    Ex: Suffering through a cold football game because you already bought the ticket
  15. Expertise
    Requires about 10 years of intense practice (from chess to sports to violin playing)

    Experts can look for a pattern and recognize its features and importance quickly
  16. Near transfer
    Benefit to a new skill based on practice of a similar skill

    Easy to demonstrate

    (transferring from problems about the velocity of trains to the velocity of cars in physics)
  17. Far Transfer
    Benefit from practicing something less similar from your expertise

    Example: Rapidly switching tasks to improve your ability to control attention and perform acts of "central executive function"
Card Set:
Solving Problems and Making Decisions
2013-09-02 00:52:16
Probs Decisions

Psych 1
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