Clinical Pathology I - Week 1
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Clinical Pathology I - Week 1
Clinical Pathology - Dr. Moore
what test is the BUN for?
what test is the ALT for?
what is the old name for the ALT test?
what do you NOT do to the animal if ALT levels are elevated?
surgery - no anesthesia
if PCV is over the high number, what does it mean?
dehydration or shock
what do you not do to the animal if it is in shock?
what is hematology the study of?
iron, hemoglobin, blood (WBC & RBC)
what are the two portions of blood?
what are the components of the cellular portion of blood?
what is the scientific name for RBC?
what is the scientific name for WBC?
what is the scientific name for platelets?
what percentage of all cell are erythrocytes?
normal RBC for dog
normal WBC for dog
what is the ratio for WBC to RBC?
why do normal RBCs do not have a nucleus?
enables more hemoglobin and therefore carry more oxygen
what is the component of the fluid portion of the blood?
what constitutes plasma?
water, electrolytes and clotting factors
what are the two major electrolytes in plasma?
sodium and chloride
what are electrolytes?
minor elements with a charge
how many total electrolytes?
how many electrolytes are we concerned about?
what are the six major electrolytes?
what is the seventh electrolyte?
how much water is in plasma?
what is normal saline?
water with sodium and chloride
what is the percentage of electrolytes in normal saline?
what is an alternate name for normal saline?
what does "iso" mean?
normal or same
what type of fluid is blood?
what fluid is preferred in the veterinary clinic over isotonic saline?
what is lactated ringers?
water and electrolytes
what are the main electrolytes found in lactated ringers?
calcium and potassium
what is the constitution of all body fluids except urine?
99% water ~0.9% sodium chloride
what is water known as when in an IV bag?
what does a hypotonic solution do?
what is a milliequivalent?
number of grams in 1 mL of NS
what does NS stand for?
what is the abbreviation for milliequivalent?
what is the milliequivalent amounts per liter for each electrolyte?
Mg ~ 2 mEq/L
Ca ~ 3.5 mEq/L
PO4 ~ 4 mEq/L
Na ~ 155 mEq/L
Cl ~ 110 mEq/L
K ~ 4 mEq/L
what is the cellular respiration formula?
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 --> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
which cells go through cellular respiration?
all cells, each cell, every cell - non-dead cell
which cells do not undergo cellular respiration?
during respiration, what is released with exhale?
water and carbon dioxide
what is the chemical formula for glucose?
C6 H12 O6
How does glucose travel?
eaten, absorbed in small intestine, and transported through blood in erythrocytes
what two things are water soluble?
sugar and amino acids
what is not water soluble?
since fats are not water soluble, what else does that mean?
fats are not easily transported
what two main issues are caused by fat?
clogged arteries around heart
clogged arteries around brain - stroke
what part of the nephron filters toxins from the blood?
what is needed for the blood to be properly filtered?
pressure on the water
what does the cow use for grabbing food?
what does the horse use for grabbing food?
what enzyme do humans have in their mouth to aid in digestion?
what is the route for glucose ingestion?
mouth -> esophagus -> stomach -> digestive enzymes produced by pancreas -> small intestine absorb water and food -> carried throughout the body by the blood stream
what is serum?
the fluid portion of the blood without clotting factors
what is the purpose of insulin?
allows glucose to enter cells (it is like a key opening the door for glucose to enter the cell)
when an animal is in shock, what is immediately given?
fluids which elevates the blood pressure to allow the kidneys to properly filter out toxins
what is urea?
waste product of protein breakdown into amino acids
what is PCV?
packed cell volume: percentage of erythrocytes (RBCs) to total volume of blood
what is indicated by low PVC value?
low RBC therefore low hemoglobin and oxygen which leads to low ATP production and ultimately lethargy or sluggishness
what is globulin?
what is a naive protein?
a protein that has not been exposed to the body
what five things are proteins used for?
enzymes (amino acids)
plasma membranes (ex. transport hormones)
what food has complete percentage of the ten essential proteins?
what food is close to a complete percentage of the ten essential proteins?
red meat - 96%
what is indicated by too much protein?
too much amino acids which is then used for cellular respiration
what must be removed from amino acids if being used for cellular respiration?
ammonia aka nitrogen group (amine group)
what is NH3?
ammonia aka amine or nitrogen group
what is the process name for the removal of the amine group from amino acids?
where does deamination occur?
what happens to the ammonia when removed in the liver?
dumped into the blood
what combines with ammonia to create urea?
what is produced when urea and water are combined?
what are the three signs of distress?
what is shock?
movement of blood from peripheral to internal circulation (kidney) (Dr. Moore)
reduced cardiac output and vasodilitation (Dr. Younger)
what is the definition of fluid?
what is indicated by high PCV levels in a horse?
level of shock with colic
what is the general indicators of elevated PCV levels?
low fluids leading to increased dehydration or shock along with decreased blood pressure
what is anisocytosis?
variation in cell size
what is polychromasia?
variation in color
what is reticulocyte?
immature RBC (underdeveloped)
what are the characteristics of a reticulocyte?
larger and darker (bluish)
what is the normal color of RBCs?
what is a blast?
how does RBCs mature?
larger are younger
smallest are oldest
what are the seven stages of RBC maturation?
what is poikilocytosis?
what is the function of the spleen?
remove dead and/or abnormal RBCs
what three types of RBCs are mainly found in the bone marrow?
what are the four characteristics to describe a RBC?
what is the normal PCV for a dog?
when performing a PCV or hematocrit test, which way does the packed end of the tube face and why?
faces out away from center; the force pulls the tube outward
what displays an infection?
elevated neutrophil count
what is another name for a nucleated RBC?
what does a metarubricyte or nucleated RBC indicate?
what is the #1 condition associated with anemia?
auto-immune hemolytic anemia
what two things doe WBCs have?
a segmented neutrophil with more than 4 segments is referred to as?
what does a band neutrophil look like?
symmetrical horse shoe
what is a band neutrophil?
immature segmented neutrophil
what does a segmented neutrophil look like?
pretzel - divided into different lobes
what is the common amount for segmented neutrophils?
60-80 out of 100
what is an issue with band neutrophils?
do not have sufficient enzymes to be effectively phagocytic
what is the center of an RBC referred to as?
what are the four characteristics of a monocyte?
white/clear vacuoles in cytoplasm
indented non-round nucleus/not all one color
what kind of cell is large and dark in color?
what is the term used for an awkward shaped RBC?
what is the term for a cell with spiked edges, usually due to "speed drying"?
what is the term used for RBC fragments?
what is an example that can cause schistocytes?
aspirin given to a cat
what is the normal PCV of a cat?
what are hypersegmented neutrophils?
what are spherocytes a sign of?
auto-immune hemolytic anemia
how do spherocytes get their color?
antibodies in the dog attack the RBCs and the RBC weight condenses making the the cell darker in color
what are target cells also known as?
haemobartonella is now known as?
what are Heinz bodies a sign of?
what is common toxicity in dogs that causes Heinz bodies?
what is the main identifier of a target cell?
hemoglobin is pigmented in the center (same color as the rest of the cell)
what are Howell Jolly bodies?
what three types of RBCs are associated with auto-immune hemolytic anemia?
what leukocytes are agranular?
what leukocytes are granular?
what is rouleaux?
RBCs that are "stacked" like coins or poker chips
what is the common amount for band neutrophil?
0-2 out of 100
what is the unique characteristic of eosinophils?
red granules in cytoplasm
what is the term for a tear-drop shaped RBC?
what is the term for an RBC that has two long projections (looks like a bite is missing)?
what is the process of splitting or destruction of RBCs?
what are the two most common WBCs?
what is the normal count for lymphocytes?
18-25 out of 100
what is the term for an RBC with a slit-like central pallor?
what is the unique characteristic of Heinz bodies?
what is the unique characteristic of a nucleated RBC?
looks like an "egg"
what is the unique characteristic of a spherocyte?
smaller size and darker red
what is the term for a condensed RBC?
what is the term given to a RBC with multiple irregularly shaped finger-like spicules?
what term is given to a larger cell with residual nuclear reticulum that appears as coarse or "lacey" pattern?
what term is given to blue granules found in RBCs?
what is another term for echinocyte?
what term is given to discrete blue-gray cytoplasm inclusions that are round or oval found in WBCs?
Howell Jolly bodies