Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 - 3

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Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 - 3
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Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 - 3
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  1. Anatomy
    Study of structure (shape of the body and its parts)
  2. Physiology
    Study of function (how the body and its parts work or function)
  3. Anatomy & Physiology
    Structure determines function
  4. Pathology
    Study of structural changes that lead to disease
  5. Levels of Structural Organization
    Chemicals -> organelles -> cells -> tissues -> organs -> organ system -> organism
  6. Responsiveness
    Ability to sense changes (stimuli) and respond to them [Nervous, Endocrine]
  7. Metabolism
    All chemical reactions within the body (building things up and breaking them down)
  8. Catabolism
    Breaks things down (produces energy)
  9. Anabolism
    Builds things up (makes body structures)
  10. Oxygen
    • Produce energy
    • 60-80% of body weight
    • Involved in metabolic reactions
  11. Homeostasis
    • Maintaining a stable internal environment withing narrow limits, regardless of environmental changes.
    • Must be maintained for normal body functioning and to sustain life
    • Maintaining Homeostasis
    • Feedback Mechanisms
    • Homeostatic Imbalance
  12. Maintaining Homeostasis
    • Body communicates through nerual & hormonal control system
    • 1. Receptor
    • 2. Control Center
    • 3. Effector (muscles or glands)
  13. Feedback Mechanism
    • Negative Feedback (moving back to the set point)
    • Positive Feedback (pushes away from the set point)
  14. Positive Feedback
    • Has an amplifying effect that increases the original stimulus to push the variable further away from the set point
    • Only normal occurrences are in blood clotting, birth of a baby, and sexual response.
    • i. Others are result of pathology and are harmful
    • a. ex: heart attack due to restricted blood flow to the heart eventually results in less cardiac output which again decreases blood flow.
  15. Homeostatic Imbalance
    • A disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease
    • May be cause by infection injury or genetic abnormality
  16. The Language of Anatomy
    • A special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding
    • Orientation and Directional Terms
    • Regional Terms
    • Body planes and sections
    • Body cavities and membranes
    • Abdominal regions and quadrants
  17. Exact terms are used for:
    • 1. Position
    • 2. Direction
    • 3. Regions
    • 4. Structures
  18. Orientation and Directional Terms
    • 1. Proper anatomical position
    • 2. Directional Terms
    • 3. Regional Terms
  19. Proper anatomical position
    A point of reference
  20. Directional Terms
    • Superior [above]/ Inferior [below]
    • Anterior (ventral) [front]/ Posterior (dorsal) [behind]
    • Medial [inner side]/ Lateral [outer side]
    • Proximal [closer]/ Distal [Far]
    • Superficial (external)/ Deep (internal)
  21. Regional Terms
    • a. Axial
    •      i. Head
    •      ii. Neck
    •      iii. Trunch
    • b. Thorax, abdomen, pelvis
    • c. Appendicular (Relating to the limbs; one of the two major divisions of the body)
    • d. Specific body areas
  22. Body Planes and Sections
    • 1. Frontal (coronal)
    • 2. Transverse (cross sections) [superior and inferior parts]
    • 3. Median or Midsagittal [lies in the midline]
    • 4. Sagittal [A longitudianal (vertical) plane that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left portions]
    • 5. Oblique [A cut made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical (front) plane of the body or an organ]
  23. Body cavities and membranes
    • 1. Dorsal Cavity
    • 2. Ventral Cavity
    • 3. Other body cavities
  24. Dorsal Cavity
    Composed of the cranial and vertebral (spinal) cavities
  25. Ventral Cavity
    • a. Contains visceral organs
    • b. Composed of the thoracic, mediastinum (pericardial), and abdominoperlvic cavities
    • c. Membranes
  26. Membranes
    • Line the cavities and cover outside of organs
    • Named by lining location + cavity word
    • Thoracic cavity lined by parietal+pleura= parietal pleura
    • Thoracic organs covered by visceral pleura
    • Abdominopelvic cavity line by parietal peritoneum
    • Abdominopelvic organs covered by visceral peritoneum
    • Pericardial cavity lined by parietal pericardium
    • Peridardial organ (heart) covered by visceral pericardium
  27. Other body cavities
    Oral and digestive, nasal, orbital, middle ear, synovial etc.
  28. Abdominal regions and quadrants
    • 1. 9 regions (specific anatomical areas)
    • 2. 4 quadrants (common clinical use)
  29. Matter
    • Anything that occupies space and has mass (weight)
    • Composition of matter
  30. Anything that occupies space and has mass (weight)
    • 1. i.e. The physical (living and non-living) "stuff" of the universe
    • 2. Can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas
    • 3. Weight (mass)
    •  a. We quantify the amount of a substance by its mass. Under the influence of gravity on the earth's surface, mass is equal to the more familiar term "weight".
  31. Composition of matter
    • 1. Elements
    • 2. Atoms
  32. Elements
    • a. Fundamental units of matter
    •   i. They cannot be broken down into other substances
    • b. 96% of life is made up of 4 elements
    •   i. H, O, N, C
  33. Atoms
    • a. Building blocks of elements
    • b. Atomic structure
    •  i. Nucleus
    •    a. Protons (p+)
    •    b. Neutrons (n0)
    •  ii. Outside of nucleus
    •    a. Electrons (e-)
  34. Identifying Elements
    • Elements differ in the number of subatomic particles in their atoms
    • 1. Chemical Symbol
    • 2. Atomic Number
    • 3. Mass Number/Atomic Mass
    • 4. Isotopes
  35. Atomic Number
    Number of p+s that the atom contains
  36. Mass number/atomic mass
    Protons + Neutrons
  37. Isotopes
    • a. Same number of p+s and e-s
    • b. Vary in number of neutrons
    • c. Radioisotope
    • d. Radioactivity
  38. Radioisotope
    • Heavy isotope
    • Tends to be unstable
    • Decomposes to more stable isotope
  39. Radioactivity
    • i. Process of spontaneous atomic decay
    • ii. As some isotopes adjust to a more stable form, they will emit a measurable energy. Thy energy release is called "radiation".
    • iii. We can make use of radioactive isotopes in medicine (low level radiation) 
    •  a. Remember the organization of the human body: chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ system etc.
    •  b. Normally cells (epithelial tissue) in the thyroid gland (organ) take up the element iodine (I) from your diet to make a thyroid hormone. If we want to check the activity of your thyroid gland we can feed you radioactive iodine. As your thyroid cells take up the radioactive iodine, energy emitted from your thyroid gland is captured by a machine (scanned) and used to make an image (picture) of your gland. We may see cancer tumors, an under active, overactive or normal gland. This procedure is often called a "thyroid scan".

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