Objective 1.txt

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Objective 1.txt
2013-09-02 14:12:42

Objective 1
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  1. Anticoagulants
    “blood thinners”; Lovenox; decreases clotting ability of blood; used for certain blood vessel, heart and lung conditions; ofter prescribed to prevent first or recurrent stroke
  2. Antiplatelets
    aspirin; prevents platelets from sticking together; helps prevent clotting in patients who have had a MI, unstable angina, usually preventably
  3. ACE inhibitors
    “pril”; expand blood vessels and decreases resistance; allows blood to flow easier; used to treat HTN and HF
  4. Angiotensin II receptors
    “artan”; Cozaar, Micardis; prevents angiotensin receptor blockers from having any effects on the heart and blood vessels; keeps BP from rising; treat HF and HTN
  5. Beta blockers
    “lol”; decreases the heart rate and CO which lowers BP and makes the heart beat more slowly and with less force; Used to lower BP; therapy for cardiac arrhythmias and chest pain; used to prevent future heart attacks in patient who have had one
  6. Calcium channel blockers
    “pine”; amlodipine, Cardizem; interrupts the movement of calcium into the cells of heat and blood vessels; decrease heart pumping strength and relax blood vessels; HTN, angina and some arrhythmias
  7. Diuretics
    causes body to rid itself of excess fluids and sodium; helps to relieve heart’s workload; HTN and edema; moves fluids from 3rd space fluids
  8. Vasodilators
    “nitrates”; relaxes blood vessels and increases supply of blood and O2 to heart while reducing its workload; prescribed to patients who can’t tolerate ACE inhibitors; used for angina
  9. Digoxin
    “lanoxin”; increases the force of the heart’s contractions which can be beneficial in HF and for irregular heart beats; used to relieve HF symptoms especially when ACE inhibitors and diuretics aren’t working; slows certain types of arrhythmias (especially afib)
  10. Statins
    “niacin, genfibrozil,” blower cholesterol; work in different ways; used to lower LDL and raise HDL and lower triglycerides
  11. Amiodarone
    Used for AF, PAF, PSVT, life-threatening ventricular dysrhythmias; treat ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia that occurs during cardiac arrest and is unresponsive to shock delivery, CPR and vasopressors; dosage-300 mg IV push for cardiac arrest in VF/pulseless VT; ursing implications-Monitor for return of rhythm and pulse when used for recurrent unstable VT or VF (expected response); Use with extreme caution in patients receiving other antidysrhythmics (reduces the hepatic and renal clearance of certain antidysrhtyhmics, specifically procainamide, quinidine, and flecainide); Use caution in patients with pulmonary, hepatic or thyroid disease (can cause fatal toxicity especially in patients receiving more than 600 mg daily); perform continuous cardiac monitoring while the patient is receiving the loading dose (there is a slow onset of antidysrhythmic effect and a high risk for life-threatening dysrhythmias);Precautions-should only be used after defibrillation/cardioversion and first line drugs (epi and vasopressin) have failed to convert VT/VF
  12. Atropine
    used for bradycardia; increases firing of the SA node by blocking the action of the vagus nerve on the heart resulting in an increased heart rate; monitor heart rate and rhythm; assess for chest pain after administration; assess for urinary retention and dry mouth after administration (atropine is anticholinergic); avoid using in patients with acute angle closure glaucoma (atropine increases ocular pressure); precautions-used cautiously in the presence of myocardial ischemia and hypoxia since it increases oxygen demand of heart and can worsen ischemia
  13. Adenosine
    used for PSVT, WPW;slows cardiac conduction particularly effecting conduction through the AV node;flushing, chest pain/tightness, brief asystole, bradycardia;Monitor heart rate and rhythm after administration (a short period of asystole is common after administration; bradycardia and hypotension may occur): Assess patients for facial flushing, shortness of breath, dyspnea and chest pain (common side effects); Assess patients for recurrence of PSVT or ventricular ectopy (recurrence of PSVT is common; PVCs may occur)
  14. Vasopressin (ADH)
    used for VF, asystole, PEA, shock; raises BP by inducing moderate vasoconstriction and it is more effective than epi in asystole cardiac arrest;side effects-lower risk for adverse side effects than epi; Nursing implications-Monitor for return of rhythm and pulse when used for VF or pulseless VT
  15. Epinephrine
    used for asystole, VF, VT, PEA, hypotension, anaphylaxis (pulseless arrest); causes direct vasoconstriction thus improving perfusion pressure to the brain and heart; increase heart rate, increases heart muscle contractility, increases conductivity through the AV node;Nursing implications-monitor for return of rhythm and pulse when used for asystole or VF (expected response); assess for tachycardia, dysrhythmias or HTN; assess for development of coarse VF when given during the VF (this may improve the response to defibrillation); precautions-used with caution in patients suffering from MI as it increases heart rate and raises BP which can increase myocardial oxygen demand and worsen ischemia
  16. Dopamine
    Used for hypotension, shock, CHF, renal failure; Assess for increased BP (expected response); Monitor for tachycardia, dysrhythmias or HTN (adverse reactions may occur); monitor IV site for infiltration (extravasation of drug can occur causing necrosis); Assess for urine output <30 ml/hr, pallor, cyanosis, pain or numbness in extremities