OSUCOM Week 3 part 2

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 Author: blake ID: 232481 Filename: OSUCOM Week 3 part 2 Updated: 2013-09-03 07:47:55 Tags: OSUCOM Folders: Description: OSUCOM Week 3 part 2 Show Answers:

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1. What is a ratio?
A ratio shows the relative size of two values (boys/girls at birth = 52/48). Note, the denominator may or may not be larger.
2. What is a rate?
A ratio that takes the form a/a+b during some period of time. (ie part/total during 2012)
3. What is a proportion?
A ratio with a numerator that is a subset of the denominator (boys/boys + girls at birth = 52/100). Note, the denominator is always larger. (ie, part/total)
4. What is incidence?
The appearance of new cases over a specified period of time. Can be cumulative or a rate.

Cumulative (probability of an individual getting a disease): Usually used with fixed populations = # of new cases of disease/# at risk at beginning of follow up or over a given period of time.

Incidence rate (density): Used for dynamic populations (most common) = # of new cases / sum of disease-free person-time (usually person-years) over a specified time period.
5. What is prevalence?
The proportion of people in a population with a disease at specified point (or period). Ie, measure existing disease.
6. How can you calculate point prevalence?
# of existing cases / total population at a specific point in time (a proportion)
7. How can you calculate period prevalence?
• Period prevalence:
• (# of existing cases + number of cases that occurred during the interval) / population at midpoint of interval or average population size
8. Describe the relation between incidence and prevalence
Prevalence = instance x duration of disease
9. What are the hormones and their functions that regulate weight in the short term and in the long-term?
• Short term:
• Ghrelin: An appetite stimulant
• Peptide YY (PYY): An appetite suppressant
• Long term:
• Leptin (released from adipocytes): acts on the hypothalamus to inhibit food intake, promote loss of body weight, and stimulate metabolic rate.
• Insulin: Stimulates glucose uptake and anabolic activity, including lipid synthesis
10. What is angiotensinogen?
• Angiotensinogen (AGE) regulates lipid storage and is a precursor to angiotensin II (regulates blood pressure)
• Adiponectin stimulates fatty acid oxidation - correlated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia.
12. What does Resistin do?
• Resistin increases insulin resistance - linked to obesity and type II diabetes.
13. What is PPARgamma/RXR?
• The master switch regulator of white adipocyte differentiation
14. Compare the inactive and active forms of vitamin D
15. Vitamin K - inactive vs active form
16. Name common sources of vitamin K
• Leafy green vegetables (cabbage, broccoli, lettuce, spinach, etc)
• Intestinal bacteria
• Small quantities are found in human milk and liver
17. Name common vitamin D food sources
• Fish oils
• egg yolks
• butter
• fortified milk
18. Name common sources of vitamin A
• Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid are commonly found in...
• carotenoids (carrots, pumpkins, etc)
• salmon
• lobster shells
• liver
• fish oils
• egg yolks
• cream/butter
19. What are the important functions of vitamin A
• Vision
• Differentiation of epithelial cells
• Growth
• Reproduction
20. What are the important functions of vitamin K?
• Blood clotting
• Bone metabolism

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