OSUCOM Week 3 part 2

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blake
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232481
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OSUCOM Week 3 part 2
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2013-09-03 07:47:55
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OSUCOM
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OSUCOM Week 3 part 2
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  1. What is a ratio?
    A ratio shows the relative size of two values (boys/girls at birth = 52/48). Note, the denominator may or may not be larger.
  2. What is a rate?
    A ratio that takes the form a/a+b during some period of time. (ie part/total during 2012)
  3. What is a proportion?
    A ratio with a numerator that is a subset of the denominator (boys/boys + girls at birth = 52/100). Note, the denominator is always larger. (ie, part/total)
  4. What is incidence?
    The appearance of new cases over a specified period of time. Can be cumulative or a rate.

    Cumulative (probability of an individual getting a disease): Usually used with fixed populations = # of new cases of disease/# at risk at beginning of follow up or over a given period of time.

    Incidence rate (density): Used for dynamic populations (most common) = # of new cases / sum of disease-free person-time (usually person-years) over a specified time period.
  5. What is prevalence?
    The proportion of people in a population with a disease at specified point (or period). Ie, measure existing disease.
  6. How can you calculate point prevalence?
    # of existing cases / total population at a specific point in time (a proportion)
  7. How can you calculate period prevalence?
    • Period prevalence:
    • (# of existing cases + number of cases that occurred during the interval) / population at midpoint of interval or average population size
  8. Describe the relation between incidence and prevalence
    Prevalence = instance x duration of disease
  9. What are the hormones and their functions that regulate weight in the short term and in the long-term?
    • Short term:
    • Ghrelin: An appetite stimulant
    • Peptide YY (PYY): An appetite suppressant
    • Long term:
    • Leptin (released from adipocytes): acts on the hypothalamus to inhibit food intake, promote loss of body weight, and stimulate metabolic rate.
    • Insulin: Stimulates glucose uptake and anabolic activity, including lipid synthesis
  10. What is angiotensinogen?
    • Angiotensinogen (AGE) regulates lipid storage and is a precursor to angiotensin II (regulates blood pressure)
    • (white adipose derived hormone)
  11. What does adiponectin do?
    • Adiponectin stimulates fatty acid oxidation - correlated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia.
    • (white adipose derived hormone)
  12. What does Resistin do?
    • Resistin increases insulin resistance - linked to obesity and type II diabetes.
    • (white adipose derived hormone)
  13. What is PPARgamma/RXR?
    • The master switch regulator of white adipocyte differentiation
    • (white adipose derived hormone)
  14. Compare the inactive and active forms of vitamin D
  15. Vitamin K - inactive vs active form
  16. Name common sources of vitamin K
    • Leafy green vegetables (cabbage, broccoli, lettuce, spinach, etc)
    • Intestinal bacteria
    • Small quantities are found in human milk and liver
  17. Name common vitamin D food sources
    • Fish oils
    • egg yolks
    • butter
    • fortified milk
  18. Name common sources of vitamin A
    • Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid are commonly found in...
    • carotenoids (carrots, pumpkins, etc)
    • salmon
    • lobster shells
    • liver
    • fish oils
    • egg yolks
    • cream/butter
  19. What are the important functions of vitamin A
    • Vision
    • Differentiation of epithelial cells
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
  20. What are the important functions of vitamin K?
    • Blood clotting
    • Bone metabolism

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