SOCIO221 CH1 - Sociological Perspectives/Theories

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SOCIO221 CH1 - Sociological Perspectives/Theories
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2013-09-04 14:03:28
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Sociological Perspectives/Theories
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  1. Sociological Perspective (a.k.a. Theoretical Perspective)
    a set of ideas...
    in the form of concepts and assumptions about social life
  2. Examples of Sociological Perspective set of ideas are...
    the concept of conflict, social interaction, and function
  3. Sociological Perspective (a.k.a. Theoretical Perspective)
    a set of theories about...
    social life
  4. Examples of Sociological Perspective set of theories are...
    • Karl Marx's theory about the economic system
    • Max Weber's theory about religion
    • Emile Durkheim's theory about suicide
  5. What are the three major sociological perspectives?
    • Conflict
    • Interactionist
    • Functionalist
  6. Conflict Theoretical Perspective
    ..helps to understand how power affects the distribution of scarce resources and how conflict can change society.
  7. Who is the fountainhead of Conflict Theoretical Perspective?
    Karl Marx
  8. Conflict Theoretical Perspective helps a sociologist understand problems on what level of analysis?
    Macro
  9. Conflict Theoretical Perspective
    Conflict
    the overt struggle between groups in a society or between countries
  10. Interactionist Theoretical Perspective
    ... helps to understand how social structures are created in the course of human interaction.
  11. Interactionist Theoreical Perspective helps sociologists understand problems on what level of analysis?
    Micro
  12. Who is the fountainhead of Interactionist Theoretical Perspective?
    Max Weber
  13. Interactionist Theoretical Perspective
    Social interaction
    process by which people influence one another
  14. Interactionist Theoretical Perspective
    Social relationship
    pattern of repeated social interaction
  15. Interactionist Theoretical Perspective
    Interpretation
    the act of understanding intentional or unintentional human behavior
  16. Interactionist Theoretical Perspective views...
    social structure as a web or network of social relationships
  17. Interactionist: Symbol
    A symbol is something that stands for, represents, or takes the place of something else.
  18. Interactionist: Example of a symbol
    A crucifix, for example, symbolizes the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, whether it is made from wood, metal, or plastic; the Star of David likewise symbolizes Judaism.
  19. Functionalist Theoretical Perspective
    ... helps to understand how society is structured and how social structures work together as a system to perform the major functions of society.
  20. Functionalist: dysfunctional
    Some social practices may be dysfunctional; that is, they may disrupt social equilibrium rather than contribute to it.
  21. Functionalist: Example of dysfunction
    For example, encouraging large families, as some religious teachings do, would be dysfunctional in a society that is already overpopulated.
  22. Functionalist Theoretical Perspective helps a sociologist understand problems on what level of analysis?
    Middle
  23. Who is the fountainhead of Functionalist Theoretical Perspective?
    Emile Durkehelm
  24. Functionalist Theoretical Perspective
    Function
    a purpose or consequence regarded as making an essential contribution to the working and maintenance of a social system
  25. Functionalist Theoretical Perspective
    Social solidarity
    unity among people
  26. Functionalist Theoretical Perspective
    Social integration
    connections that people have with one another
  27. Functionalist Theoretical Perspective views...
    social structure as having parts that need equilibrium for stability
  28. Multidimensional Sociological Perspective
    An approach based on the notion that all three of the major sociological perspectives are extremely powerful analytical tools and that a sociologist should combine insights and use concepts from each.
  29. Conflict Theoretical Perspective
    Power
    Refers to the ability of an individual or group to change the behavior of others.

    "The probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance." - Max Weber
  30. Conflict Theoretical Perspective
    Hegemony
    dominance or undue power or undue influence
  31. Conflict Theoretical Perspective views...
    social structure as an environment where groups fight for power
  32. What are the two types of Theoretical Perspectives?
    • Macrosociology
    • Microsociology
  33. Macrosociology
    a theoretical perspective that focuses on large groups and society as a whole
  34. Examples of Macrosociology are...
    • Conflict Theoretical Perspective
    • Functionalist Theoretical Perspective
  35. Microsociology
    a theoretical perspective that focuses on small groups and the intimate levels of everyday interactions between people
  36. An example of Microsociology is...
    Interactionist Theoretical Perspective
  37. Functionalism: View of Society
    A system of interrelated and interdependent parts.
  38. Functionalism: View of the Individual
    People are shaped by society to perform important functions for society.
  39. Functionalist: View of Social Change
    The social system tends to resist change as disruptive.
  40. Functionalism: Key Concepts
    integration, interdependence, stability, equilibrium
  41. Interactionism: View of Society
    Individuals in face-to-face interaction create social consensus.
  42. Interactionism: View of the Individual
    People are symbol manipulators who create their social world through social interaction and consensus.
  43. Interactionism: View of Social Change
    Change occurs when there is no shared consensus about expected behavior and a newly found consensus develops.
  44. Interactionism: View of Social Problems
    Arise when a condition is defined as stigmatizing or disruptive of normal social expectations.
  45. Interactionism: Key Concepts
    interpretation, consensus, shared expectations, socially created reality
  46. Conflict Theory: View of the Individual
    People are shaped by the position of their groups in society.
  47. Conflict Theory: View of Social Problems
    Arise when a group believes its interests are not being served and works to overcome perceived disadvantage.
  48. Conflict Theory: View of Society
    Made up of groups struggling with one another over scarce resources.
  49. Conflict Theory: Key Concepts
    interest, power, dominance, conflict, coercion

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