Kinesiology (MBLEX)

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  1. Abduction
    • movement away from the midline of the body;
    • examples including bringing the arms upward from the side of the body and opening the legs during a jumping jack (abducts the shoulder and the hip) and spreading the fingers apart
  2. Acromioclavicular (AC) ligament
    • binds the distal end of the clavicle with the acromion process;
    • injured in a shoulder separation
  3. Adduction
    • movement toward the midline of the body;
    • examples include bringing the arms downward to the side of the body during a jumping jack and bringing the fingers together from a spread position
  4. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
    • connects the femur to the tibia;
    • commonly damaged in athletic knee injuries
  5. Articular cartilage
    • lines the contact surfaces of the bones within the joint;
    • provides cushion to adjoining bones, congruity of the joint surfaces, and decreased friction in the join and obtains nutrients by imbibing (absorbing) from the synovialfluid within the joint space;
    • when this wears thin or becomes inflamed or pathologic, the condition is called arthritis
  6. Anterior talofibular ligament
    • binds the distal fibula with the talus;
    • crosses the anterolateral aspect of the ankle joint;
    • usually damaged in a common ankle sprain (inversion sprain)
  7. Ball-and-socket joints
    • joints formed by a round, convex surface in a socket or cavity;
    • allow movement in all planes (joint with most movement);
    • examples include the glenohumeral (shoulder) and hip joints
  8. Bursae
    • small, fluid-filled sacs that provide a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint;
    • bursae are filled with synovial fluid and are found around almost every major joint of the body;
    • when they become inflamed, the condition is called burisits
  9. Cartilaginous joints
    • slightly movable joints;
    • articulating surfaces of the bones are separated by a piece of cartilage; also called amphiarthroses;
    • examples include the intervertebral disks and the pubic symphsis
  10. Circumduction
    • a circular or cone-shaped movement involving a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction;
    • an example is drawing a circle on a chalkboard with a straight elbow
  11. Condylar (ellipsoidal) joints
    • joints formed by a convex surface within a concave surface;
    • permit movement in two planes;
    • examples include the radiocarpal (wrist) and metacarpophalangeal (base of the fingers) joints
  12. Depression
    • moving a body part downward;
    • examples include opening the mouth and pulling the shoulders down from a shrugged position
  13. Dorsiflexion
    • pulling the top or dorsal surface of the foot up;
    • an example is pulling the toes off of the ground when standing
  14. Elevation
    • lifting a body part upward;
    • examples include shrugging the shoulders and closing the mouth
  15. Eversion
    • rolling the sole of the foot to face more laterally;
    • an example is standing on the inside of the foot
  16. Extension
    • a straightening movement;
    • increasing the angle between bones to 180 degrees;
    • a return from flexion (i.e., a movement that is the opposite of flexion)
  17. External (lateral) rotation
    rotation the anterior segment of the bone laterally
  18. Fibrous joints
    • immovable joints;
    • also called synarthrodial joints;
    • examples include sutures and epiphyseal (growth) plates
  19. Flexion
    • a bending movement;
    • decreasing the angle between the anterior surfaces of the bones (except at the knees and toes);
    • exampels include bending the elbow, bending the kneww, making a fist, bending at the waist to pick something up, pulling the leg at the hip to step up a stair, bowing the head
  20. Gliding (plane) joints
    • joints formed by two flat surfaces coming together;
    • allow side-to-side movement, back and forth movement, and rotation;
    • examples include the intercarpal and intertarsal joints and the facet joints in the spine
  21. Hinge joints
    • joints that act like a door on hinges;
    • permit movement in only one plane;
    • examples include the elbow, knee, and interphalangeal joints
  22. Horizontal abduction
    • moving an abducted body part backward in the transverse or horizontal plane;
    • examples include drawing the string of a bow back and lowering the body down in a push-up
  23. Horizontal adduction
    • moving an abducted body part forward in the transverse or horizontal plane;
    • examples include throwing a discus and pushing the body up in a push-up
  24. Hyperextension
    • increasing the angle between bones past 180 degrees
    • for example, looking up at the sky hyperextends the neck
  25. Internal (medial) rotation
    rotating the anterior segment of the bone medially
  26. Inversion
    • rolling the sole of the foot to face more medially;
    • an example is standing on the outside of the foot
  27. Joint capsule
    • the ligamentous structure that encases and encloses the joint;
    • adds stability to the joint and restricts movement
  28. Labrum
    ring of cartilage found within the glenohumeral joint (shoulder)
  29. Lateral flexion
    • bending the trunk or neck laterally;
    • also called side bending
  30. Ligaments
    • dense fibrous connective tissue that adds stability to a joint structure;
    • often blends with the joint capsule around the joint;
    • ┬ácan also be found within the joint cavity
  31. Medial collateral ligament (MCL)
    • connects the tibia and the femur on the medial aspect of the knee joint;
    • commonly injured in athletic knee injuries
  32. Meniscus
    figure 9-shaped ring of cartilage found within the knee joint
  33. Nuchal ligament
    • binds spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae together;
    • serves as the origin for the trapezius and splenius capitis muscles
  34. Pivot joints
    • joints formed by a cone-shaped surface of one bone articulating with a concave notch of another bone;
    • allow rotation only;
    • examples include the atlatoaxial (between C1 and C2 and radioulnar joints)
  35. Plantar flexion
    • pointing the plantar surface of the foot downward;
    • an example is standing on the tips of the toes
  36. Pronation
    rolling the forearm so that the palm faces posteriorly (when in anatomical position)
  37. Protraction
    • moving a body part forward;
    • examples include pushing the jaw forward, bringing the head forward, and pulling the scapulae forward as in a forward reach
  38. Retraction
    • moving the body part backward;
    • examples include pulling the jaw in after being pushed out and moving the scapulate toward the spine as in a rowing motion
  39. Right and left rotation
    rotation of the trunk or neck to the right or left
  40. Rotation
    movement around the long axis of the bone
  41. Saddle joints
    • joints formed by two saddle-shaped surfaces (convex in one plane, concave in another plane);
    • allow for stabilized movement in two planes;
    • an example is the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb
  42. Supination
    rolling the forearm so that the palm faces anteriorly (when in anatomical position)
  43. Synovial fluid
    • fluid that fills the joint space;
    • provides nutrition and lubrication to the joint surfaces
  44. Synovial joints
    • freely moveable joints;
    • possess a joint cavity encapsulated by ligamentous structures (joint capsule and/or ligaments); contain synovial fluid that is secreted by the synovial membrane; ends of joints are lines with hyaline cartilage;
    • also called diarthroses
  45. Synovial membrane
    • lines the inside of the joint capsule;
    • produces synovial fluid
  46. Transverse carpal ligament (flexor retinaculum)
    • covers the tendons for the wrist and finger flexors;
    • forms the carpal tunnel
  47. Mechanical Advantage (pg 345)
    • measure of the strength of the level system
    • *the closer the fulcrum is to the load - more movement or mechanical movement
  48. Velocity or Speed
    • the velocity of a lever arm has an inverse relationship to the mechanical advantage
    • in other words, as the mechanical advantage decreases the velocity increases
Card Set:
Kinesiology (MBLEX)
2013-09-15 06:38:09
Kinesiology MBLEX

Kinesiology (MBLEX) from Steve's MBLEX Review Class and MBLEX book
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