Parasitic Phyla

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smourer
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232550
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Parasitic Phyla
Updated:
2013-09-03 17:09:05
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Parasites Parasitology Phyla Phylum classification identification
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Parasitic Phyla
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  1. Sarcomastigophora
    • Phylum of Single-celled Protozoan parasites,
    • Sarco = amoebas   Mastigo =  flagella    Phora = bearers
    • 2 subphyla:
    • Mastigophora (flagellates) & Sarcodina (amoebas)
    • In both groups, reproduction is mostly asexual (binary fission)
  2. Mastigophora
    • Subphylum of Sarcomastigophora
    • Flagellates: have long, thread-like extension of cytoplasm that functions in locomotion
    • # & position of flagella vary in different species
    • Examples: can be found in blood (Trypanosoma like in Sleeping Sickness), intestine (Giardia - Giardiosis), vagina or urethra (Trichomonas - Trichomoniasis) - all highly pathogenic
  3. Sarcodina
    • Subphylum of Sarcomastigophora
    • Sarcodines: include amoebas; they move by means of cytoplasmic extensions called pseudopodia
    • These amoebas includes free-living, commensal & parasitic ones
    • Example: Entamoeba histolytica- important pathogen
  4. Apicomplexa
    • Phylum of parasitic protazoans
    • Sporozoans: they are tissue parasites, with complex life cycle (have alternating sexual and asexual generations)
    • No locomotory organelles, rely on circulatory system of host and vectors as transportation

    • Examples: 4 species of Plasmodium are found primarily as blood parasites and cause malaria
    • Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Sarcocystis are parasitic in the intestinal mucosa
    • Toxoplasma, Pneumocystis and Babesia are found in various organs and tissues
  5. Ciliophora
    • Phylum of parasitic protozoans
    • Ciliates: include a variety of free-living and symbiotic forms, many multinucleated (macronucleus and micronucleus)
    • Locomotion is accomplished by cilia: short threads of cytoplasm arising from basal granules
    • Cilia are structurally similar to flagella but are shorter and more numerous
    • The only ciliate parasite of humans is Balantidium coli, found in the intestinal tract. They may produce severe intestinal symptoms
  6. Platyhelminthes
    • Phylum of flatworms
    • Multicellular, with flat body
    • Bilaterally symmetrical, with incomplete gut (no anus)
    • Hermaphroditic (monoecious) having both male and female organs in same individual
    • Their size range is highly variable.
    • Most members are symbionts, living on or in the body of their hosts
    • Divided into three classes
    • Free-living ones belong to class Turbellaria
    • Classes Trematoda and Cestoda are parasitic
  7. Trematodes
    • Class of parasitic flatworms
    • Flukes: leaf-shaped or elongate, with attachment organs in form of hooks or cup-shaped muscular depressions called suckers
    • Simple incomplete digestive tract is present 
    • Members have complex life histories with at least 2 hosts in life cycle; the 1st intermediate host is always a mollusk
    • Parasitize the intestinal tract, the liver, the blood vessels, and the lungs
  8. Cestoda
    • Class of parasitic flatworms
    • Tapeworms: typically have an elongated, ribbon-like, segmented body that bears a specialized attachment organ, the scolex, anteriorly
    • Digestive tract is absent; absorb nutrients directly through body wall.
    • Adults mostly reside within the small intestine
  9. Nematoda
    • Phylum of Roundworms
    • Elongate, cylindrical worms, with pointed ends & tough/stiff cuticle
    • Sexes are separate (dioecious), males are almost always smaller than the females
    • A well-developed complete digestive system is present, with both mouth and anus
    • While most nematodes are free-living, many are parasites to humans, plants, and animals
    • Intermediate hosts are necessary for the larval development for some forms (never a mollusk)
    • Parasites of humans include intestinal & tissue-inhabiting
  10. Arthropoda
    • Phylum of insects, arachnids, crustaceans, etc.
    • Paired and jointed appendages
    • Segmented
    • Bilateral symmetry
    • Tough exoskeleton
    • Digestive system is well developed
    • Dioecious i.e., sexes are separate
    • several subphyla, classes, orders, etc.
    • most successful animal phyla; many insects, arachnids, crustaceans serve as parasites and vectors

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