Advanced Artic beginning of Ch.2

Card Set Information

Advanced Artic beginning of Ch.2
2013-09-03 12:13:59
advanced artic

Ch. 2 pages 12-21
Show Answers:

  1. Which system consists of the brain and spinal cord?
    central nervous system
  2. which system consists of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves?
    peripheral nervous system
  3. how many pairs of cranial nerves are there? spinal nerves?
    • 12 cranial
    • 31 spinal
  4. What is the key component and most complex part of the nervous system?
  5. The normal adult brain weighs around ___ to ___ lbs.
    2.5 to 3.5 lbs
  6. The brain is divided into 3 parts-list them.
    cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum
  7. Which part of the brain is split into two hemispheres that are divided by the longitudinal fissure?
  8. list the 4 lobes of the cerebrum.
    frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
  9. The ________ lobe is located on the anterior/front portion of the cerebrum.
  10. the _________ lobe lies on the lower sides of the cerebrum.
  11. the ________ lobe is found on the upper sides of the cerebrum behind the frontal lobe.
  12. The ________ lobe is the rearmost portion of the cerebrum, behind both the temporal and parietal lobes.
  13. Deep convolutions on the cerebrum are called _______.
  14. The groove between convolutions is called __________.
  15. The ________ _______ runs horizontally along the lateral sides of each hemisphere and separates the temporal lobe from the frontal lobe.
    lateral sulcus
  16. Which of the following is the most prominent sulcus on the cerebrum?

    A. central sulcus
    B. superior frontal sulcus
    C. superior temporal sulcus
    D. lateral sulcus
    D. Lateral sulcus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. This sulcus separates the frontal from the parietal lobes.
    central sulcus
  18. T/F The precentral gyrus, primary motor cortex, and motor strip all refer to the gyrus located immediately in front of the central sulcus.
  19. Which gyrus has cells that play an important role in controlling the voluntary movements of the body?
    precentral gyrus/primary motor cortex/motor strip
  20. The gyrus just behind the central sulcus is called by what 3 names?
    postcentral gyrus, primary sensory cortex, sensory strip
  21. What area of the brain receives sensory information from the body via the PNS and other portions of the CNS?
    postcentral gyrus/primary sensory cortex/sensory strip
  22. What is the surface of the cerebrum called?
    cerebral cortex
  23. How thick is the cerebral cortex and how many layers does it have?
    between 2 mm to 5 mm thick and it's made of 6 different layers
  24. About how many neurons (nerve cells) does the cortex contain?
    15 billion
  25. What part of the brain is often referred to as "grey matter"?
    the cortex
  26. Activities such as language, motor planning, problem solving, sensory perception are performed in what part of the nervous system?
  27. The areas in the brain known as "white matter" consist of???
    myelinated nerve cell axons
  28. Name the 3 sections of the brainstem from top to bottom.
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla
  29. List the 3 most important functions of the brainstem.
    1. acts as a passageway for the descending and ascending neural tracts that travel between the cerebrum and spinal cord.

    2. controls certain integrative and reflexive actions such as respiration, consciousness, and some functions of the cardiovascular system.

    3. it contains the places where the cranial nerves project out from the CNS.
  30. The cranial nerves are attached to the brainstem at points called the _____.
    cranial nerve nuclei
  31. The most important function of the cerebellum is to __________.
    coordinate voluntary movements
  32. This type of cell transmits electrochemical signals that control nearly every function of the body.
  33. What are the 3 primary components of a neuron?
    cell body (soma), axon, dendrite
  34. This part of the neuron contains the nucleus responsible for the cell's vital metabolic functions.
    cell body
  35. Cell bodies of neurons are what color?
  36. What is the name of the many short processes that extend from the cell body of a neuron?
  37. What is the single long extension from the cell body that conducts neural impulses away from the neuron?
  38. What is the end of an axon called?
    terminal boutons
  39. What is the name of the white lipid protein that covers the length of the axon?
  40. This type of neuron transmits neural impulses that cause contractions in muscles.
    motor neurons
  41. This type of neuron carry information related to sensory stimuli.
    sensory neurons
  42. This type of neuron links neurons with other neurons and are the most common type of neuron.
  43. Neurons that carry impulses away from the CNS are called?
  44. Neurons that carry impulses toward the CNS are called?
  45. List the 4 different types of glial cells.
    • Schwann cells
    • microglia
    • oligodendroglia
    • astrocytes
  46. This type of glial cell provides the myelin sheath around axons in the PNS.
    Schwann cells
  47. This type of glial cell acts as a scavenger and removes dead cells and other waste.
  48. This type of glial cell forms myelin around axons in the CNS.
  49. This type of glial cell makes up the connective tissue of the CNS.
  50. It is believed that there are about ___ times as many glial cells as neurons and that they make up more than half the volume of the nervous system.
  51. When bundles of axons are found in the CNS they are often called ________.
  52. When bundles of axons are found in the PNS they are called _________.
  53. When the electrochemical charge of an axon reaches the axon's terminal ramifications, small amounts of a substance called a ____________ are released from these end points.
  54. What is the name of the space between the active neuron and an adjoining neuron?
    synaptic cleft
  55. Neurotransmitters can have 2 functions-what are they?
    excitatory-they increase the probability of an electrochemical impulse being stimulated in the adjoining neuron

    inhibitory-they decrease the probability of an impulse occurring in the adjoining neuron.
  56. What are the 2 most important neurotransmitters in the motor system?
    dopamine and acetylcholine
  57. If there are too many inhibitory neurotransmitters, a person will suffer from? too many excitatory neurotransmitters?
    • inhibitory = flaccidity
    • excitatory = spasticity