Advanced Artic beginning of Ch.2

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Ilovemytwocats
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Advanced Artic beginning of Ch.2
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2013-09-03 12:13:59
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Ch. 2 pages 12-21
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  1. Which system consists of the brain and spinal cord?
    central nervous system
  2. which system consists of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves?
    peripheral nervous system
  3. how many pairs of cranial nerves are there? spinal nerves?
    • 12 cranial
    • 31 spinal
  4. What is the key component and most complex part of the nervous system?
    brain
  5. The normal adult brain weighs around ___ to ___ lbs.
    2.5 to 3.5 lbs
  6. The brain is divided into 3 parts-list them.
    cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum
  7. Which part of the brain is split into two hemispheres that are divided by the longitudinal fissure?
    cerebrum
  8. list the 4 lobes of the cerebrum.
    frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
  9. The ________ lobe is located on the anterior/front portion of the cerebrum.
    frontal
  10. the _________ lobe lies on the lower sides of the cerebrum.
    temporal
  11. the ________ lobe is found on the upper sides of the cerebrum behind the frontal lobe.
    temporal
  12. The ________ lobe is the rearmost portion of the cerebrum, behind both the temporal and parietal lobes.
    occipital
  13. Deep convolutions on the cerebrum are called _______.
    gyri
  14. The groove between convolutions is called __________.
    sulcus
  15. The ________ _______ runs horizontally along the lateral sides of each hemisphere and separates the temporal lobe from the frontal lobe.
    lateral sulcus
  16. Which of the following is the most prominent sulcus on the cerebrum?

    A. central sulcus
    B. superior frontal sulcus
    C. superior temporal sulcus
    D. lateral sulcus
    D. Lateral sulcus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. This sulcus separates the frontal from the parietal lobes.
    central sulcus
  18. T/F The precentral gyrus, primary motor cortex, and motor strip all refer to the gyrus located immediately in front of the central sulcus.
    true
  19. Which gyrus has cells that play an important role in controlling the voluntary movements of the body?
    precentral gyrus/primary motor cortex/motor strip
  20. The gyrus just behind the central sulcus is called by what 3 names?
    postcentral gyrus, primary sensory cortex, sensory strip
  21. What area of the brain receives sensory information from the body via the PNS and other portions of the CNS?
    postcentral gyrus/primary sensory cortex/sensory strip
  22. What is the surface of the cerebrum called?
    cerebral cortex
  23. How thick is the cerebral cortex and how many layers does it have?
    between 2 mm to 5 mm thick and it's made of 6 different layers
  24. About how many neurons (nerve cells) does the cortex contain?
    15 billion
  25. What part of the brain is often referred to as "grey matter"?
    the cortex
  26. Activities such as language, motor planning, problem solving, sensory perception are performed in what part of the nervous system?
    cortex
  27. The areas in the brain known as "white matter" consist of???
    myelinated nerve cell axons
  28. Name the 3 sections of the brainstem from top to bottom.
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla
  29. List the 3 most important functions of the brainstem.
    1. acts as a passageway for the descending and ascending neural tracts that travel between the cerebrum and spinal cord.

    2. controls certain integrative and reflexive actions such as respiration, consciousness, and some functions of the cardiovascular system.

    3. it contains the places where the cranial nerves project out from the CNS.
  30. The cranial nerves are attached to the brainstem at points called the _____.
    cranial nerve nuclei
  31. The most important function of the cerebellum is to __________.
    coordinate voluntary movements
  32. This type of cell transmits electrochemical signals that control nearly every function of the body.
    neuron
  33. What are the 3 primary components of a neuron?
    cell body (soma), axon, dendrite
  34. This part of the neuron contains the nucleus responsible for the cell's vital metabolic functions.
    cell body
  35. Cell bodies of neurons are what color?
    grey
  36. What is the name of the many short processes that extend from the cell body of a neuron?
    dendrites
  37. What is the single long extension from the cell body that conducts neural impulses away from the neuron?
    axon
  38. What is the end of an axon called?
    terminal boutons
  39. What is the name of the white lipid protein that covers the length of the axon?
    myelin
  40. This type of neuron transmits neural impulses that cause contractions in muscles.
    motor neurons
  41. This type of neuron carry information related to sensory stimuli.
    sensory neurons
  42. This type of neuron links neurons with other neurons and are the most common type of neuron.
    interneurons
  43. Neurons that carry impulses away from the CNS are called?
    efferrent
  44. Neurons that carry impulses toward the CNS are called?
    afferrent
  45. List the 4 different types of glial cells.
    • Schwann cells
    • microglia
    • oligodendroglia
    • astrocytes
  46. This type of glial cell provides the myelin sheath around axons in the PNS.
    Schwann cells
  47. This type of glial cell acts as a scavenger and removes dead cells and other waste.
    microglia
  48. This type of glial cell forms myelin around axons in the CNS.
    oligodenroglia
  49. This type of glial cell makes up the connective tissue of the CNS.
    astrocytes
  50. It is believed that there are about ___ times as many glial cells as neurons and that they make up more than half the volume of the nervous system.
    10
  51. When bundles of axons are found in the CNS they are often called ________.
    tracts
  52. When bundles of axons are found in the PNS they are called _________.
    nerves
  53. When the electrochemical charge of an axon reaches the axon's terminal ramifications, small amounts of a substance called a ____________ are released from these end points.
    neurotransmitter
  54. What is the name of the space between the active neuron and an adjoining neuron?
    synaptic cleft
  55. Neurotransmitters can have 2 functions-what are they?
    excitatory-they increase the probability of an electrochemical impulse being stimulated in the adjoining neuron

    inhibitory-they decrease the probability of an impulse occurring in the adjoining neuron.
  56. What are the 2 most important neurotransmitters in the motor system?
    dopamine and acetylcholine
  57. If there are too many inhibitory neurotransmitters, a person will suffer from? too many excitatory neurotransmitters?
    • inhibitory = flaccidity
    • excitatory = spasticity

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