Pharmacology

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Author:
hannahshort
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232598
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Pharmacology
Updated:
2013-09-10 00:28:59
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chapters 123
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week 1
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  1. always dose the animal..
    to effect
  2. non-propietary
    generic

    ex: Acetaminophen 
  3. proprietary
    brand name

    ex: Tylenol 
  4. what does the superscript signify?
    registered trademark and cannot be legally used by other manufacturers. 

    allows the company time to solely sell the product to make their $ back.
  5. generic equivalent
    • drug of equivalent chemical formula
    • "copy cats"

    said to be the same but FDA only requires they be 90% pure 
  6. is PropoFlo a proprietary or non-proprietary name?
    proprietary

    propofol is the non-proprietary name
  7. compressed powder
    tablet
  8. chewable molder tablet
    powdered drug mixed with lactose or dextrose

    ex: Heartgard
  9. solution
    the drug is powder (solute) that dissolves in the liquid (diluent) and does not settle out

    do not have to be shaken before use.
  10. suspension
    the drug (solute) is suspended in the liquid (diluent)

    must be shaken before use.
  11. examples of suspensions
    • emulsions
    • gels
    • lotions
    • ointments
    • pastes
  12. examples of solutions
    • syrups
    • elixirs
    • tinctures
  13. emulsion
    two liquids mixed together with small globules of one suspended in the other (from notes)

    drug suspended within an oil or liquid fat (from book)

    like a lava lamp!
  14. gel
    two compounds mixed in a jell 
  15. liniment
    two compounds: one drug mixed into an oil that is rubbed into the skin
  16. lotion
    like liniment (drug mixed into an oil that is rubbed into the skin) but thicker and meant to be dabbed or brushed on the skin rather than rubbed into the skin
  17. ointments
    thicker than lotion or liniments and are smeared on the skin
  18. is lotion or ointment best absorbed by skin?
    lotion

    ointment stays on longer
  19. syrup
    drug dissolved in a heavy sugar solution (85% sucrose)
  20. elixir
    • drug is dissolved in a sweetened alcohol base
    • strictly oral
  21. tinctures
    • drug dissolved in alcohol solution
    • topical
  22. injectables
    drugs administered elsewhere in the body than the mouth and alimentary canal via needle and syringe
  23. ampules
    • glass opened by snapping off the neck
    • no rubber stopper
    • disposed of after one use

    ex: Vit K (needed for clotting)
  24. vials
    • rubber stopper
    • disposed of after one use

    ex: Soludelta Cortef
  25. extracts
    ground up plant and animal parts that have  been treated, filtered, refined, and prepared into some medicinal form

    vary from lot to lot since prepared in large "batches"
  26. dosage
    amount of drug given per unit of body weight (mg/kg)
  27. dose
    amount given at one time

    (2 mL)
  28. sources of information
    • formularies- booklet lists dosages for commonly used drugs
    • Veterinary Pharmaceutical and Biologicals (VPB) like Physicians Desk Reference (PDR)
    • veterinary drug handbook
    • package inserts
  29. require prescription by a person with a DEA #
    controlled substance/schedule drug
  30. a capital C followed by a roman numeral on a drug label indicates
    the drug is a controlled substance or schedule drug
  31. controlled substance
    a substance that has the potential for physical addiction, psychological addiction, and/or abuse
  32. description of composition
    chemical definition
  33. indications
    list for which the drug is approved
  34. precautions
    fairly rare adverse reactions or mild side effects
  35. warnings
    more serious or frequent side effects/potential fatal reactions
  36. adverse reaction
    undesirable reactions that could occur to make the animal sick
  37. side effects
    any normal occurring effect of the drug other than the intended therapeutic effect

    (polydipsia with steroids)
  38. contraindications
    circumstances in which the drug should not be used
  39. C-I
    extreme potential for abuse and no medicinal purpose
  40. C-II
    high potential for abuse and may lead to severe physical or psychological dependence

    (opium, pentobarbital, morphine, ketamine)
  41. C-III
    some potential for abuse but less than that of C-II 
  42. C-IV
    low potential for abuse

    (butorphanol, diazepam (Valium))
  43. C-V
    • lowest potential for abuse
    • subject to state and local regulations
  44. DEA
    Drug Enforcement Administration

    formerly BNDD
  45. what must be packaged in childproof container?
    controlled substance of schedule II, III, IV 
  46. off/extra label use
    uses not approved by FDA for this drug, however, it has been used for this successfully by veterinarians

    (Ivomec for treatment of microfilaria)
  47. OSHA
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
  48. MSDS
    Material Safety Data Sheet

    guidelines for protective precautions, cleanup procedures, and first aid for accidental exposure with hazardous compounds
  49. cytotoxic drug
    • "cell poison"
    • especially poisonous to mammalian cells
    • include antineoplastic agents (drugs used to treat cancer)
    • store separately from other drugs
  50. cold
    not to exceed 46 degrees
  51. cool
    46-59 
  52. room temp
    59-86
  53. warm
    86-104
  54. excessive heat
    greater than 104
  55. FDA
    Food and Drug Administration
  56. OTC
    over the counter

    • decision is based on:
    • toxicity of the drug
    • method used
    • how adequately directions for use can be written so layperson can clearly and consistently understand them
  57. Rx
    prescription

    drug considered toxic, potentially toxic if misused, or too readily misused
  58. what must a prescription contain to be valid?
    • 1.name of hospital/vet, address, current phone #
    • 2.date it was written
    • 3.client's name&address, species of animal
    • 4.Rx
    • 5.drug name, concentration, number of units to be dispensed
    • 6.Sig indicating direction of treatment
    • 7.signature of vet
    • 8.DEA registration number if controlled substance
  59. what does Rx mean?
    to take thou of
  60. what does Sig mean?
    to mark, write or label
  61. example of sig
    1 tablet q8h
  62. example of dosage
    10 mg/kg
  63. what is the overall goal of any regime of treatment?
    maintain drug levels within the therapeutic range
  64. 3 components to therapeutic use of drugs
    • route of admin
    • amount of drug given each dose
    • dosage interval
  65. routes of administration (fastest to slowest)
    • IV
    • IM
    • SQ
    • PO
  66. loading dose
    initial dose to reach therapeutic level of effect
  67. maintenance dose
    dose needed to maintain the level of drug at the middle of the threshold range (generally 1/2 the loading dose)
  68. dose interval
    amount of time between administration of separate doses
  69. dosage regimen
    dosage interval and dosage

    (give 10mg/kg every 8 hrs for 10 days)
  70. total daily dose
    dose X frequency of administration

    (100 mg X 3 times a day=total daily dose of 300 mg)
  71. pharmacokinetics
    once a drug is given, the nature of the drug and the body's response to the drug determines how the drug is metabolized in the body
  72. 4 classic steps in drug movement
    • absorption (into bloodstream)
    • distribution (by blood to tissues)
    • metabolism (by liver)
    • excretion (by kidneys)

    *disease alters these
  73. drug absorption
    process of moving from site of admin into systemic blood circulation

    (exception: local anesthetics)
  74. no absorption phase
    IV&intra-arterial

    • drug goes directly into the blood system
    • no barriers to absorption=bioavailability of 1
  75. bioavailability of each route
    • IV- 1
    • IM- 0.85
    • SQ- 0.75
    • PO- 0.45-0.56
    • IP- 0.45
    • rectally- 0.21
  76. passive diffusion
    • movement of drug molecules from region of higher concentration to lower concentration through semi-permeable membrane
    • no energy needed
  77. facilitated diffusion
    • carrier molecules located within the membrane encircle the drug molecules and carry them through the membrane
    • uses energy

    (hotel revolving door)
  78. active transport
    • carrier molecules like facilitated but here the drug is molecule is pumped against the concentration gradient "uphill" as needed
    • requires energy
  79. pinocytosis&phagocytosis
    • membrane, not the carrier molecules, surround the drug and take it within the cell
    • requires energy
  80. type of cells that make up blood brain barrier
    glial cells

    only lipophilic drugs pass through 
  81. common barriers to drug passage
    • placenta
    • prostate gland
    • brain&spinal cord
    • globe of eye
  82. show minimal drug concentration
    • fat
    • bone
    • ligaments
    • tendons

    (poorly perfused tissues)
  83. show high drug concentration
    • brain
    • heart
    • kidney
    • liver

    (high perfused tissues)
  84. elimination/excretion
    removal of drug from the body

    effected by: dehydration, age, kidney, heart, other conditions..

    failure to compensate= drug toxicity (aspirin in dog&cat)
  85. half life
    amount of time it takes for the concentration of a drug to decrease by half
  86. drug completely dissolved in a liquid vehicle that does not settle out, or precipitate if left standing
    solution
  87. term for the liquid that the drug dissolves into
    diluent
  88. most up-to-date location for drug info
    package insert
  89. what did the poison prevention act of 1970 enable the FDA to do?
    require child proof packaging for drugs that may be dangerous to children
  90. controlled substance
    has the potential for physical addiction, psychological addiction, and or abuse
  91. compounding
    any manipulation to produce a dose form of a drug in any other form than what is approved by the FDA
  92. factors interfering with elimination
    • renal excretion
    • shock (poor BP so decrease of blood going through to kidneys)
    • dehydration (same ^ hypotension)
    • increased sympathetic tone (decreases all cholinergic activity)
  93. withdrawal time
    period between the last administration of the drug until the animal can be legally slaughtered or milk/eggs can be used for human consumption 
  94. to move across the gastrointestinal membrane, drug molecules must be? why?
    • lipophilic (dissolves in fat/oil)
    • membranes are largely composed of lipids
  95. non-ionized
    lipophilic
  96. ionized
    hydrophilic
  97. which form (lipo/hydrophilic) penetrates an acid environment better?
    lipophilic
  98. which form (lipo/hydrophilic) penetrates an alkaline environment better?
    hydrophilic
  99. which form (lipo/hydrophilic) is found primarily SQ and not in GI tract?
    hydrophilic
  100. stomach pH is 
    1-3
  101. duodenum pH
    6-7
  102. lipo/hydrophilic better for oral administration?
    lipophilic
  103. lipo/hydrophilic better for SQ?
    hydrophilic
  104. pKa
    pH at which all drug molecules are equally distributed between ionized and non-ionized forms
  105. pKa of lower number are more suited for which environment?
    acid
  106. pKa of higher numbers are more suited for which environment?
    alkaline
  107. when an acid drug is placed in an increasingly acidic environment it becomes more..?
    lipophilic (non-ionized)
  108. when an acid drug is placed in an increasingly alkaline environment it becomes more..?
    hydrophilic (ionized)
  109. when an alkaline drug is placed in an increasingly acidic environment it becomes more..?
    hydrophilic (ionized)
  110. when an alkaline drug is placed in an increasingly alkaline environment it becomes more..?
    lipophilic (non-ionized)
  111. give two examples of acid drugs
    • Aspirin
    • Sulfadimethoxine
  112. give an example of an alkaline drug
    Lidocane
  113. ion trapping
    drug molecule may not be able to exit the compartment through the cellular membrane because it now exists in a hydrophilic form (came in as lipophilic but was changed due to a pH resulting in a significant shift from nonionized to ionized)
  114. acid drugs exist predominately in the non-ionzed form in an _________ environment, and predominately ionized in an __________ environment
    • acidic
    • alkaline
  115. alkaline drugs exist predominately in the non-ionized form in an _________ environment, and predominately ionized in an _________ environment
    • alkaline
    • acidic
  116. when are acid drugs nonionized?
    in an acidic environment
  117. when are acid drugs ionized?
    in an alkaline environment
  118. when are alkaline drugs nonionized?
    in an alkaline environment
  119. when are alkaline drugs ionized?
    in an acidic environment
  120. all oral medication goes through this first
    the liver
  121. xenobiotic
    foreign substances
  122. hepatic portal system does what?
    conducts blood from intestine to liver to allow the liver to remove potential toxins/non-natural substances before they reach systemic circulation. once removed or depleted by the liver, the substance is allowed to re-enter circulation and move to the tissues to perform its function
  123. first-pass effect
    phenomena where the liver removes so much of the drug or foreign substances that little reaches the systemic circulation
  124. biotransformation
    drugs are altered by enzymes and chemical reactions in the body before they are eliminated
  125. metabolite
    altered drug molecule
  126. majority of enzymes for biotransformation are found in the
    liver

    (usually results in a metabolite that is more hydrophilic and more readily eliminated by the kidney or liver)
  127. active form of the drug
    metabolite
  128. phases of biotransformation
    1- drug chemically altered by oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis in liver producing metabolite (active form of drug) metabolite is capable of producing desired biological effect

    2- metabolism of metabolite is combined with another molecule like glucuronic acid. the product of their union is usually hydrophilic and readily excreted into the urine
  129. prodrugs
    drugs that require biotransformation to become active
  130. 2 major routes of elimination
    • renal elimination into urine
    • liver into bile

    (inhalation anesthetics eliminated via lungs primarily at about 98%)
  131. MFO
    Mixed Function Oxidase system

    • biotransformation system in the liver
    • result of repeated exposure of drugs to MFO system results in an increased rate of biotransformation for those drugs--number of MFO enzyme molecules available for biotransformation increased when MFO system is repeatedly exposed to certain drugs

    (will also increase biotransformation of similar drugs, therefore, those doses must be increased to compensate)
  132. increased rate of metabolism
    metabolic induction
  133. during metabolic induction, metabolism of the drug is called
    induced metabolism
  134. enterohepatic circulation
    movement of drug from liver to intestinal tract and back to the liver
  135. 2 other names for hepatic elimination
    • biliary excretion
    • hepatic excretion
  136. drugs excreted by the liver move by which type of diffusion?
    passive diffusion

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