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What is a Deductive argument?
Claim that if all their premises are true then the conclusion must be true. They are either valid or invalid and sound or unsound.
How do you determine the validity of a deductive argument?
A deductive argument is valid if it is impossible for its premises to be true and its conclusion false. The setup is properly set.
How do you determine the soundness of a deductive argument?
A deductive argument is sound if it is (1) valid and has (2) all true premises. Must be literally true.
What are Inductive arguments?
Claim that if their premises are true, then their conclusions are PROBABLY true. Inductive arguments are justified or unjustified and sound or unsound. We can also think of inductive arguments as being strong or weak. Look for qualifier words.
How do you justify an inductive argument?
An inductive argument is justified when its premises do strongly support or make highly probable truth of its conclusion.
How do you judge the soundness of an inductive argument?
An inductive argument is sound if (1) it is justified and has (2) all true premises. Must be literally true.
What is a Modus Ponens?
- If A, then B
- Conclusion: So B.
- Example: If God exists, then there is a heaven.
- God does exist.
- So, there is a heaven.
What is a Modus Tollens?
- If A, then B
- Thus, ~A
- Example: If Bill is a liar, then Monica is honest
- Monica is not honest.
- Conclusion:Thus, Bill is not a liar
What is Disjunctive Syllogism?
- Either A or B
- Conclusion:Therefore, A
- Example: Either Kobe is guilty or Kobe was framed.
- Kobe was not framed.
- Therefore, Kobe is guilty.
What is Categorical Syllogism?
- All X are Y
- Some X is not Z
- Thus, some Y is not Z
- Example: All humans are rational.
- Some humans are not intelligent.
- Thus, some rational humans are not intelligent.