Blast injuries: compressed waves of air, Thorax collapses; organ hemorrhage and rupture
Causes nitrogen to dissolve in blood
When pressure removed, nitrogen is released and forms gas emboli.
Electron removal from active cells
DNA is mos vulnerable target
Acute loud noise or cumulative effect
also known as infiltrations
An important manifestation of cell injury is the intracellular accumulation of abnormal amounts of various substances and the resultant metabolic disturbances.
The two categories of substances produces by accumulation are:
Normal cellular substance: excess water, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates
Abnormal substance: either endogenous (such as a product of abnormal metabolism or synthesis) or exogenous (infectious agents or a mineral)
The types of cellular accumulations are :
Cellular swelling: the shift of extracellular water into the cells.
The metabolic failure cased by hypoxia, reduced levels of ATP and ATPase permit sodium to accumulate in the cell while potassium drifts outward. The increased intracellular sodium concentration increases osmotic pressure, drawing more water into the cell.
Cellular swelling is reversible and is considered sublethal. it is an early manifestation of almost all types of cellular injury, including severe or lethal cell injury.
Lipids and Carbohydrates
These may accumulate throughout the body but are most commonly found in the spleen, liver, and CNS (can cause neurologic dysfunction & severe mental retardation)
The most common site for intracellular lipid accumulation, for fatty change, is liver cells.
As lipids fill the cells, vacuolation pushes the nucleus and other organelles aside. The livers outward appearance becomes yellow and greasy.
Alcohol abuse is one of the most common causes of fatty liver.
Intracellular accumulations of glycogen are seen in genetic disorders called glycogen storage diseases and in disorders of glucose and glycogen metabolism
As with water and lipid accumulation, glycogen accumulation results in excessive vacuolation of the cytoplasm
The most common cause is the disorder of glucose metabolism, diabetes mellitus