A&P Chapter 1
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Anatomy describes the ___ of the body -- their scientific names, composition, location and assoc structures.
____ studies the functions of each structure, individually & in combination w/other structures
All physiological functions are performed are performed by specific ___ ___.
An anatomist studies the ____ of something where as a physiologist study how that something ____.
The study of anatomy is divided into what 2 major fields?
- Gross Anatomy
- Microscopic Anatomy
Gross anatomy (aka ____ anatomy) is defined as what?
- The study of lg visible structures
Microscopic anatomy is defined as what?
StudyStructures udy of structures too sm too see such as cells and molecules
Name the 5 divisions of Gross anatomy.
____ anatomy describes surface forms and marks.
____ anatomy describes the organization of specific areas of the body.
Systemic anatomy describes what?
Grps of organs that function together for a single purpose
What division of gross anatomy describes structural changes in an organism fr fertilized egg to maturity?
_____ is the anatomical study of early development.
Clinical anatomy is defined as what?
- Anatomy broken down by medical specialty.
- ie radiographic- structures appearing on scans and x- rays
What are the 2 major divisions of microscopic anatomy?
The study of cells & their structures is known as ___.
Histology is defined as what?
The study of tissues & their structures
What are the 4 basic divisions of Physiology?
What division of physiology includes chem & molecular processes within & between cells?
Specialized physiology is the study of . . . .
Specific organs such as the heart
The study of the cooperative functions of all organs in an organ sys is known as ____ physiology.
Pathological physiology focuses on what?
Effects of disease on organs and organ systems
The 8 levels of organization among living things, fr smallest to largest, are what?
- Organ sys
As the environment around or within us changes, physiology sys work together to maintain a stable internal environment. This is known as ____.
What are the 2 primary mechanisms that reg homeostasis?
- Auto- or intrinsic regulation
- Extrinsic regulation
Which mechanism used to regulate homeostasis utilizes an automatic response by a cell, tissue, organ or organ sys to a change in its environment?
Auto- or intrinsic regulation
The mechanism that utilizes the nervous & endocrine sys to regulate homeostasis is known as ___ ___.
With regards to regulation of homeostasis, the nervous system does what?
Responds to external stimuli w/short term nerve responses
With regards to regulation of homeostasis, the endocrine sys does what?
Responds to internal conds w/long term chem controls known as hormones
A homeostatic regulatory mechanism consists of what 3 parts which each do what?
- Receptors - sensors that respond to a stimulus
- Ctrl ctr - receives info fr sensors & sends out commands
- Effectors - cell/organ responds to ctrl ctr
When the response of an effector opposes the original stimulus ____ feedback occurs.
When the response of an effector adds to original stimulus rather than negating it, ____ feedback is occurring.
Failure of the body to maintain equilibrium WNL results in ____ or ____.
Disease or Death
The body is said to be in a constant state of dynamic equilibrium. This means what?
The body is constantly working, changing and responding to stimuli in order to maintain homeostasis
What 5 internal characteristics are most important in maintaining homeostasis?
- Body temperature
- Body fluid composition
- Body fluid volume
- Waste product composition
What are the 3 sectional planes?
The sagittal plane divides the body how?
Into right & left halves
The frontal plane (aka ____ plane) divides the body how?
Into anterior & posterior portions
A transverse plane is at a ___ ___ to the sagittal & frontal planes resulting in ___ & ___ portions.
- Right angle
- Inferior & Superior
Internal compartments in the body are called ___. They perform what functions?
- Provide protection, hold organs in place, allow organs to change size/shape
All internal organs found within body cavities are called ____.
The name given to moist layers of connective tissue that cover walls of internal cavities and visceral organs themselves is ___ ___.
What is the purpose of the serous membrane?
Friction reduction allowing organs to expand & contract freely
The layer of serous membrane that covers the walls of internal cavities is know as the ___ layer.
The layer of serous membrane that covers organs themselves is known as the ____ layer.
The ventral body cavity (coelom) is divided by the ___ into what 2 parts?
- Thoracic & Abdominopelvic cavities
The thoracic cavity is divided into what 2 sub cavities?
- Pleural cavity
- Pericardial cavity
We have a left and right ___ cavity that is divided by the mediastinum.
The pleural cavity contains the ___ (organ) which are covered by what membrane?
- Visceral & parietal pleura
The pericardial cavity contains the (organ) ____ and utilizes what membranes?
- Visceral & parietal pericardium
What 2 sub cavities are within the abdominopelvic cavity (Aka ____ cavity)?
The peritoneal cavity contains what 2 membranes?
Visceral & parietal peritoneum
The abdominal cavity (superior peritoneal) contains what 4 organs?
The pelvic cavity (inferior peritoneal) contains what 3 organs?
- Reproductive organs
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