A&P Chapter 1

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medic11
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232652
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A&P Chapter 1
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2013-09-04 14:33:45
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BI 211
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Chapter 1 cards
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  1. Anatomy describes the ___ of the body -- their scientific names, composition, location and assoc structures.
    Structures
  2. ____ studies the functions of each structure, individually & in combination w/other structures
    Physiology
  3. All physiological functions are performed are performed by specific ___ ___.
    Anatomical structures
  4. An anatomist studies the ____ of something where as a physiologist study how that something ____.
    • Structure
    • Functions
  5. The study of anatomy is divided into what 2 major fields?
    • Gross Anatomy
    • Microscopic Anatomy
  6. Gross anatomy (aka ____ anatomy) is defined as what?
    • Macroscopic
    • The study of lg visible structures
  7. Microscopic anatomy is defined as what?
    StudyStructures udy of structures too sm too see such as cells and molecules
  8. Name the 5 divisions of Gross anatomy.
    • Surface
    • Regional
    • Systemic
    • Developmental
    • Clinical
  9. ____ anatomy describes surface forms and marks.
    Surface
  10. ____ anatomy describes the organization of specific areas of the body.
    Regional
  11. Systemic anatomy describes what?
    Grps of organs that function together for a single purpose
  12. What division of gross anatomy describes structural changes in an organism fr fertilized egg to maturity?
    Developmental
  13. _____ is the anatomical study of early development.
    Embryology
  14. Clinical anatomy is defined as what?
    • Anatomy broken down by medical specialty. 
    • ie radiographic- structures appearing on scans and x- rays
  15. What are the 2 major divisions of microscopic anatomy?
    • Cytology
    • Histology
  16. The study of cells & their structures is known as ___.
    Cytology
  17. Histology is defined as what?
    The study of tissues & their structures
  18. What are the 4 basic divisions of Physiology?
    • Cell
    • Specialized
    • Systemic
    • Pathological
  19. What division of physiology includes chem & molecular processes within & between cells?
    Cell
  20. Specialized physiology is the study of . . . . 
    Specific organs such as the heart
  21. The study of the cooperative functions of all organs in an organ sys is known as ____ physiology. 
    Systemic
  22. Pathological physiology focuses on what?
    Effects of disease on organs and organ systems
  23. The 8 levels of organization among living things, fr smallest to largest, are what?
    • Atoms
    • Molecules
    • Organelles
    • Cells
    • Tissues
    • Organs 
    • Organ sys
    • Organism
  24. As the environment around or within us changes, physiology sys work together to maintain a stable internal environment.  This is known as ____.
    HomeostasisHomeostasis
  25. What are the 2 primary mechanisms that reg homeostasis?
    • Auto- or intrinsic regulation 
    • Extrinsic regulation
  26. Which mechanism used to regulate homeostasis utilizes an automatic response by a cell, tissue, organ or organ sys to a change in its environment?
    Auto- or intrinsic regulation
  27. The mechanism that utilizes the nervous & endocrine sys to regulate homeostasis is known as ___ ___.
    Extrinsic regulation
  28. With regards to regulation of homeostasis, the nervous system does what?
    Responds to external stimuli w/short term nerve responses
  29. With regards to regulation of homeostasis, the endocrine sys does what?
    Responds to internal conds w/long term chem controls known as hormones
  30. A homeostatic regulatory mechanism consists of what 3 parts which each do what?
    • Receptors - sensors that respond to a stimulus
    • Ctrl ctr - receives info fr sensors & sends out commands
    • Effectors - cell/organ responds to ctrl ctr
  31. When the response of an effector opposes the original stimulus ____ feedback occurs.
    Negative
  32. When the response of an effector adds to original stimulus rather than negating it, ____ feedback is occurring. 
    Positive
  33. Failure of the body to maintain equilibrium WNL results in ____ or ____.
    Disease or Death
  34. The body is said to be in a constant state of dynamic equilibrium.  This means what?
    The body is constantly working, changing and responding to stimuli in order to maintain homeostasis 
  35. What 5 internal characteristics are most important in maintaining homeostasis?
    • Body temperature
    • Body fluid composition 
    • Body fluid volume
    • Waste product composition
    • BP
  36. What are the 3 sectional planes?
    • Sagittal
    • Frontal
    • Transverse
  37. The sagittal plane divides the body how?
    Into right & left halves 
  38. The frontal plane (aka ____ plane) divides the body how?
    Into anterior & posterior portions
  39. A transverse plane is at a ___ ___ to the sagittal & frontal planes resulting in ___ & ___ portions.
    • Right angle
    • Inferior & Superior
  40. Internal compartments in the body are called ___. They perform what functions?
    • Cavities
    • Provide protection, hold organs in place, allow organs to change size/shape
  41. All internal organs found within body cavities are called ____.
    Viscera
  42. The name given to moist layers of connective tissue that cover walls of internal cavities and visceral organs themselves is ___ ___.
    Serous membrane
  43. What is the purpose of the serous membrane?
    Friction reduction allowing organs to expand & contract freely
  44. The layer of serous membrane that covers the walls of internal cavities is know as the ___ layer.
    Parietal
  45. The layer of serous membrane that covers organs themselves is known as the ____ layer.
    Visceral
  46. The ventral body cavity (coelom) is divided by the ___ into what 2 parts?
    • Diaphragm 
    • Thoracic & Abdominopelvic cavities
  47. The thoracic cavity is divided into what 2 sub cavities?
    • Pleural cavity
    • Pericardial cavity
  48. We have a left and right ___ cavity that is divided by the mediastinum.
    Pleural cavity
  49. The pleural cavity contains the ___ (organ) which are covered by what membrane?
    • Lungs
    • Visceral & parietal pleura
  50. The pericardial cavity contains the (organ) ____ and utilizes what membranes?
    • Heart
    • Visceral & parietal pericardium
  51. What 2 sub cavities are within the abdominopelvic cavity (Aka ____ cavity)?
    • Abdominal
    • Pelvic
    • Peritoneal
  52. The peritoneal cavity contains what 2 membranes?
    Visceral & parietal peritoneum
  53. The abdominal cavity (superior peritoneal) contains what 4 organs?
    • Liver
    • Stomach
    • Spleen
    • Intestine
  54. The pelvic cavity (inferior peritoneal) contains what 3 organs?
    • Intestine
    • Bladder
    • Reproductive organs

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