A&P Chapter 1
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A&P Chapter 1
Chapter 1 cards
Anatomy describes the ___ of the body -- their scientific names, composition, location and assoc structures.
____ studies the functions of each structure, individually & in combination w/other structures
All physiological functions are performed are performed by specific ___ ___.
An anatomist studies the ____ of something where as a physiologist study how that something ____.
The study of anatomy is divided into what 2 major fields?
Gross anatomy (aka ____ anatomy) is defined as what?
The study of lg visible structures
Microscopic anatomy is defined as what?
StudyStructures udy of structures too sm too see such as cells and molecules
Name the 5 divisions of Gross anatomy.
____ anatomy describes surface forms and marks.
____ anatomy describes the organization of specific areas of the body.
Systemic anatomy describes what?
Grps of organs that function together for a single purpose
What division of gross anatomy describes structural changes in an organism fr fertilized egg to maturity?
_____ is the anatomical study of early development.
Clinical anatomy is defined as what?
Anatomy broken down by medical specialty.
ie radiographic- structures appearing on scans and x- rays
What are the 2 major divisions of microscopic anatomy?
The study of cells & their structures is known as ___.
Histology is defined as what?
The study of tissues & their structures
What are the 4 basic divisions of Physiology?
What division of physiology includes chem & molecular processes within & between cells?
Specialized physiology is the study of . . . .
Specific organs such as the heart
The study of the cooperative functions of all organs in an organ sys is known as ____ physiology.
Pathological physiology focuses on what?
Effects of disease on organs and organ systems
The 8 levels of organization among living things, fr smallest to largest, are what?
As the environment around or within us changes, physiology sys work together to maintain a stable internal environment. This is known as ____.
What are the 2 primary mechanisms that reg homeostasis?
Auto- or intrinsic regulation
Which mechanism used to regulate homeostasis utilizes an automatic response by a cell, tissue, organ or organ sys to a change in its environment?
Auto- or intrinsic regulation
The mechanism that utilizes the nervous & endocrine sys to regulate homeostasis is known as ___ ___.
With regards to regulation of homeostasis, the nervous system does what?
Responds to external stimuli w/short term nerve responses
With regards to regulation of homeostasis, the endocrine sys does what?
Responds to internal conds w/long term chem controls known as hormones
A homeostatic regulatory mechanism consists of what 3 parts which each do what?
Receptors - sensors that respond to a stimulus
Ctrl ctr - receives info fr sensors & sends out commands
Effectors - cell/organ responds to ctrl ctr
When the response of an effector opposes the original stimulus ____ feedback occurs.
When the response of an effector adds to original stimulus rather than negating it, ____ feedback is occurring.
Failure of the body to maintain equilibrium WNL results in ____ or ____.
Disease or Death
The body is said to be in a constant state of dynamic equilibrium. This means what?
The body is constantly working, changing and responding to stimuli in order to maintain homeostasis
What 5 internal characteristics are most important in maintaining homeostasis?
Body fluid composition
Body fluid volume
Waste product composition
What are the 3 sectional planes?
The sagittal plane divides the body how?
Into right & left halves
The frontal plane (aka ____ plane) divides the body how?
Into anterior & posterior portions
A transverse plane is at a ___ ___ to the sagittal & frontal planes resulting in ___ & ___ portions.
Inferior & Superior
Internal compartments in the body are called ___. They perform what functions?
Provide protection, hold organs in place, allow organs to change size/shape
All internal organs found within body cavities are called ____.
The name given to moist layers of connective tissue that cover walls of internal cavities and visceral organs themselves is ___ ___.
What is the purpose of the serous membrane?
Friction reduction allowing organs to expand & contract freely
The layer of serous membrane that covers the walls of internal cavities is know as the ___ layer.
The layer of serous membrane that covers organs themselves is known as the ____ layer.
The ventral body cavity (coelom) is divided by the ___ into what 2 parts?
Thoracic & Abdominopelvic cavities
The thoracic cavity is divided into what 2 sub cavities?
We have a left and right ___ cavity that is divided by the mediastinum.
The pleural cavity contains the ___ (organ) which are covered by what membrane?
Visceral & parietal pleura
The pericardial cavity contains the (organ) ____ and utilizes what membranes?
Visceral & parietal pericardium
What 2 sub cavities are within the abdominopelvic cavity (Aka ____ cavity)?
The peritoneal cavity contains what 2 membranes?
Visceral & parietal peritoneum
The abdominal cavity (superior peritoneal) contains what 4 organs?
The pelvic cavity (inferior peritoneal) contains what 3 organs?