American history

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charrison26
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232657
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American history
Updated:
2013-09-03 18:38:17
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  1. Politics
    The struggle over power or influence within organizations or informal groups that can grant or withhold benefits or privalages.
  2. Institution
    An ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society
  3. Government
    The preeminent institution within a society. Government has the ultimate authority to decide how conflicts will be resolved and how benefits and privileges will be allocated
  4. Order
    A state of peace and security. Maintaining order by protecting members of society from violence and criminal activity is the oldest purpose of government.
  5. Liberty
    The greatest freedom of the individual that is consistent with the freedom of other individuals in the society.
  6. Authority
    The right and power of a government or other entity to enforce its decisions and compel obedience.
  7. Legitimacy
    Popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority.
  8. Totalitarian Regime
    A form of government that controls all aspects of the political, social, and economic life of a nation.
  9. Authoritarianism
    A type of regime in which only the government itself is fully controlled by the ruler. Social and economic institutions exist that are not under the government's control.
  10. Aristocracy
    Ruled by the "best". In reality, rule by an upper class
  11. Theocracy
    Literally, rule by god or the gods. In practice, rule by religious leaders, typically self-appointed.
  12. Oligarchy
    Rule by a few.
  13. Democracy
    A system of government in which political authority is vested in the people.
  14. Direct Democracy
    A system of government in which political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by their elected representatives.
  15. Legislature
    A government body primarily responsible for the making laws
  16. Initiative
    A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
  17. Referendum
    An electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval.
  18. Recall
    A procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected official from office before his or her term has expired.
  19. Consent of the people
    The idea that governments and laws derive their legitimacy from the consent of the government.
  20. Republic
    A form of government in which sovereign power rest with the people, rather than with a king or a monarch.
  21. Popular Sovereignty
    The concept that ultimate political authority is based on the will of the people.
  22. Democratic Republic
    A republic in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and politics.
  23. Representative Democracy
    A form of government in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies, but in which the the monarchy may be retained in a ceremonial role.
  24. Universal Suffrage
    The right of all adults to vote for their representatives.
  25. Majority
    More than 50 percent
  26. Majority Rule
    A basic principle of democracy asserting that the greatest number of citizens in any political unit should select officials and determined policies
  27. Limited Government
    A government with powers that are limited either through a written document or through widely shared belief.
  28. Majoritarianism
    A political theory holding that in a democracy, the government ought to do what the majority of the people want.
  29. Elite Theory
    The argument that society is ruled by a small number of people who exercise power to further their self-interest.
  30. Pluralism
    A theory that views politics as a conflict among interest groups. Political decision making in characterized by bargaining and compromise.
  31. Political Culture
    The patterned set of ideas, values, and ways of thinking about government and politics that characterizes a people.
  32. Political Socialization
    The process by which people acquire political beliefs and values.
  33. Civil Liberties
    Those personal freedoms including freedom of religion and of speech that are protected for all individuals in a society.
  34. Bill of Rights
    The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
  35. Equality
    As a political value, the idea that all people are of equal worth.
  36. Property
    Anything that is or may be subject to ownership. As conceived by the political philosopher John Locke, the right to property is a natural right superior to human law (laws made by government)
  37. Capitalism
    An economic system characterized by the private ownership of wealth-creating assets, free market, and freedom of contract.
  38. Political Ideaology
    A comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and the role of government.
  39. Conservatism
    A set of beliefs that includes advocacy of a limited role for the national government in helping individuals support for traditional values and lifestyle, and a cautious response to change
  40. Liberalism
    Set of beliefs that includes advocacy of positive government action improve the welfare of individuals, support for civil right, and tolerance for political and social change.
  41. Socialism
    A political ideology based on strong support for economic and social equality. Socialists traditionally envisioned a society in which major businesses were taken over by the government or by employee cooperatives.
  42. Libertarianism
    A political ideology based on skepticism or opposition toward most government activities.

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