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moral development theory
hierarchy of needs
stages of growth and development
Kubler-Ross stages of grief
Bowlby’s attachment theory
Numbing=>Yearning and searching=>Disorganization and despair=> Reorganization
transferring emotions, ideas, or wishes from stressful situation to a less anxiety-producing substitute.
making up for a deficiency in one aspect of self-image by emphasizing a feature considered to be an asset.
patterning behavior after that of another person and assuming that person’s qualities, characteristics, and actions
experiencing a subjective sense of numbing and a reduced awareness of one’s surroundings
unconsciously repressing an anxiety-producing emotional conflict and transforming it into nonorganic symptoms.
neumanns systems theory
addresses role of stress in nursing
case management theory
approach that coordinates and links health care services to clients and their families while streamlining costs and maintaining quality. Usually a nurse or social worker and focuses primarily on discharge planning.
developed in response to a severe nursing shortage where an experienced RN coordinates care given by others
model of care delivery to place RN’s at the bedside
total patient care
model of care delivery to place RN’s at the bedside
transferring responsibility for the performance of an activity or task while retaining accountability for the outcome
participating actively and autonomously in policies or events that affect one’s health or well being.
working together toward a common goal or working together to accomplish a task.
includes clinical decision making, priority setting, use of organizational skills and resources, time management, and evaluation.
commitment to include clients in decisions about all aspects of care.
support of a cause
ability to answer for one’s own actions
taking positive actions to help others
avoidance of harm or hurt
through with promises and respect obligations
fairness (fair distribution of resources)
keep promises and not abandoning clients even if a disagreement occurs.
any intentional threat to bring about harmful or offensive contact
any intentional touching without consent
unjustified restraining without a legal warrant
negligent care that falls below the standards of the profession
attitudes related to physical appearance, sexuality, etc…
internal sense of individuality, wholeness and consistency of a person over time and in different situations
perception of one’s ability to carry out responsibilities
overall feeling of self worth
a system of organized beliefs
an attitude of something to life for and look forward to
a relationship with a divinity, higher power, authority, or spirit that incorporates a reasoning and a trusting faith
an inherent characteristic which includes an existential reality that provides unique and subjective experiences for all people.
- Established the first nursing philosophy based on health maintenance and restoration
- Role of nursing is “having charge of someone’s health” based on the knowledge of “how to put the body in such a state to be free of disease or to recover from disease”
- First organized program for training nurses
- Major reforms in hygiene, sanitation, and nursing practice.
- Nursing Theory- Facilitate the body’s reparative processes by manipulating the patient’s environment
- Nurse manipulates client’s environment to include appropriate noise, nutrition, hygiene, light, confort, socialization,
- and hope.
lillian wald and mary brewster
opened the Henry Street settlement, which focused on the health needs of the poor people. Nursing working here were some of the first to demonstrate autonomy. Therapies aimed at wellness through proper.
brenner and wrubel
- Focus on client’s need for caring as a means of coping with stressors of illness.
- Caring is central to the essence of nursing.
- Caring creates the possibilities for coping and enables possibilities for connecting with and concern for others.
code of ethics
- Philosophical ideals of right and wrong that define the principles you will use to provide care to your clients.
- Should incorporate your own values into your nursing practice and this will help determine the type of nurse you will be and how you will function within this discipline.
- Culture- thoughts, communication, actions, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious, or social groups.
- Culture is both visible and invisible
- Subculture- various ethnic, religious, and other groups with distinct characteristics for the dominant culture
- Ethnicity- refers to a shared identity related to social and cultural heritage such as values, language, geographical space, and racial characteristics.
HMO-health maintenance organization
- HMO- provides comprehensive preventive and treatment services to a specific group of voluntarily enrolled persons.
- Models-staff, group, network, and independent practice association.
PPO-preferred provider organization
PPO- Preferred provider organization- one thatlimits an enrollee’s choice to a list of “preferred” hospitals, physicians, and providers. An enrollee pays more out of pocket expenses for using a provider not on the list. Focuses on health maintenance, and contracts are made with preferred network and given services at a discounted price
Private Insurance- traditional fee for service plan. Payment computed after client receives services on basis number of services used.
third party payor
begins the moment the patient is admitted to the health care facility. A centralized, coordinated multidisciplinary process that ensures that the client has a plan for continuing care after leaving a health care agency.
client education needs in discharge planning:
- Client education needs- Instructions in potential food-drug interactions, nutrition information, and modified diet.
- Rehabilitation techniques
- Access to community resources
- What circumstances does the client need further care?
- What methods for follow up care.
- Client’s and families responsibilities for client’s care.
- Medication instructions.
- Model of care that reaches everyone in a community,focuses on primary rather than institutional or acute care, and provides knowledge about health and health promotion and models of care to the community.
- Challenges- Social lifestyles, Political policy,Economic initiatives
- Focuses on understanding the needs of a population, or a collection of individuals who have in common one or more personal or environmental characteristics
- Views nursing as being responsible for developing interventions to prevent or reduce stressors on the client or to
- make them more bearable for the client.
- Assist individuals, families, and groups, in attaining and maintaining maximal level of total wellness by purposeful
- Stresses the importance of accuracy in assessment and interventions that promote optimal wellness using primary,secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies.
- Promote health, restore client to health, and prevent illness.
- Involves the philosophy and science of caring.
- Caring is an interpersonal process comprising interventions to meet human needs.
lenninger cultural care model
- Provide care consistent with nursing’s emerging science and knowledge with caring as central focus.
- Transcultural care theory- caring is the central and unifying domain for nursing knowledge and practice.
- Caring is the essence of nursing and the dominant, distinctive, and unifying feature of nursing.
- Goal is to provide the client with culturally specific nursing care
therapies used in addition to conventional treatment recommended by the person’s health care provider.
goal is to restore balance within the individual by facilitating the person’s self healing ability.
attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health. Clients are the ultimate experts in their own health.
- attribute illness to natural, impersonal, and biological forces that cause alteration in the equilibrium of the body. Uses
- herbs, chemicals, heat, cold, massage, and surgery