bio test 1
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educated guess based on available information
opposite of the hypothesis
a hypothesis with a large body of evidence to support it
a well-tested theory that has become an immutable fact
variables must be held constant in an experiment
variables that are allowed to fluctuate, the independent variable is the subject of the experiment
a portion of the experiment that does not recieve a treatment, this shows a basehine companson with the portion of the group that recieves the treatment
a sugar pill used in drug trials, an individual in the trail will be unaware if they are recieving the treatment or placebo to eliminate pyschosomatic variables
some test subject will respond to a placebo because they are told it is an actual treatment
the experimenter(s) do not know whether an individual subject is getting the treatment or a placebo until the study is complete, this eliminates experimenter bias as a variable
a concept map is a diagram showing the relationships among concepts. They are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge.
characteristics of life on earth
- 2.DNA based
- 5.metabolism- use of energy
- 6.homestasis-maintaining a steady state
- 8.carbon/water based
organization of life
- organ systems
the smallest fundamental unit that retains the properties of the element (or compound)
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
the central part of the atom that houses the protons and neutrons
the clouds surrounding the nucleus where the electrons exist
what do the electrons do?
they are involved in all chemical reactions. they give and atom or molecule its unique chemical properties
how do electrons store energy?
the orbitals that electrons are in are layered like an onion would be. when atoms absorbs energy, like a sponge absorbs water, and electron can be moved to a layer further out that it normally would be. when this occures the electron has higher than it originally did
the number of protons and neutrons
atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
certain isotopes are unstable and will spontaneously break down to form a more stable nucleus
atoms are electronically neutral unless the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons
a type of force that holds two or more atoms together
an electron is taken from one atom by another atom "electron stealing"
electrons are shared between atoms "electron sharing"
metal + non-metal=
non-metal + non-metal =
metal + multiple non-metal =
both ionic and covalent bond
a measure of how strongly an atom holds on to its electrons
polar covalent bond
if two atoms in a covalent bond have significantly different elctronegativity values then a polar covalent bond is formed (the differnces should be between 0.5-1.7)
hyrdrogen bonds form when a hydrogen atoms is directly bonded to an atom of nitrogen, oxygen, or flurine. hydrogen bonds are specific type of strong polar covalent bonds
van der waals forces
a weak type of attractions between molecules, this occurs when the covalent bonds of a molecule have a electronegativity difference of less than 0.5
water conducts heat more effectively than air (approximently 6x effectively)
as a solid water is less dense than as a liqued
high heat of vaporization
every gram of water that evaporates from human skin takes heat energy away from the body
a abundant of hydrogen bonding water molecules stick together and at the surface of a body of water the molecules form a "skin". cohesion occures when molecules are attracted to other molecules of the same type. adhesion occures when polar molecules are attracted to different polar molecules
water is sometimes called the universal solvent because many substances will dissolve in it. water has a polar covalent bond it will dissolve other molecules that also have polar covalent bond
adding an acid to water will increase the number of H3o+ ions present
adding a base to water will increase the number of OH- present
solutions that are made to resist changes in pH
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