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What are 4 types of inclusions
- Fat droplets
- Glycogen granules
- Lipofuscin- yellowish brown wear and tear pigment
- Hemosiderin - aggregate of dantured ferritin proteins with iron bound
Where do stem cells occur?
In all tissues involving rapid cell turnover
Describe how stem cells divide?
In an asymmetric manner with one daughter cell remaining a stem cell and one becoming commited to differentiation
of the stem cells that commited to becoming differentiated what two kinds are there? Are these truly differentiated cells?
- Transit amplifying, and progenitor
- No they are the parents of what will soon become in a few generations differentiated cells. However they are commited.
What is a terminally differentiated cell?
Renewed cycling will not occur and the cell will only live for a short time
What divides faster stem cells or progenitor and transit amplifying cells?
Transit and progenitor
two successive cell divisions in which gametes are produced which contain half the cells found in the somatic cell
What is the first phase of meiosis and what is the special event that happens here?
- homologous chromsomes pair and undergo synapsis which includes genetic recombination
What seperates on the first cell division of meiosis?
What seperates on the second division fo meiosis? meaning both cells are?
- Sister chromatids
Process by which redundant or defective cells are eliminated without causing inflamation
The cascade that controls apoptosis is controlled by? Which regulates which organelle
- Bcl-2 family of proteins
- Release of death promoting factors by mitochondria
Describe the function of the following in apoptosis:
- - activate cytoplasmic proteases called caspaseswhich degrade cytoplasmic proteins, cytoskeleton and cell membrane
- - degrade nuclear DNA
Why do cells going through apoptosis bleb on the surface?
Cause cell and nuclear volumes are rapidly shrinking
Later in apoptosis what occurs?
Cell breaks up into apoptotic bodies which are phagocotised by local cells
Why does apoptosis not cause inflammation?
Does not release any proteins into the ECM to cause inflamtion a very controlled process