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The state directs economic activities for profit to public good
- govt. discourages imports and encourages exports
- rape the colonies for goods of mother country, too.
What did Rischard Hakluyt say would be the advantages of Mercantilism?
- colonies would benefit the mother country by supplying lumber tar, hemp, (which it was importing)
- colonies would serve as markets for woolen goods
- basic idea here is a market for goods and a source of raw materials.
What was needed to make mercantilist system work?
WHY DID THE SYSTEM NEVER REALLY WORK (SIG)…
- continuous supervision… no cheating
- by allowing colonies to sell abroad… control over economy of the colony
- must provide the raw materials needed for mother country
- English govt. never developed consistent directives or controls over the colonial economies which meant they got more and more independent economically.
What are some of the reasons that mercantile regulations went unenforced by England?
(1) Distance… 300 miles in 1700’s was big barrier
(2) Political struggles in England between king and parliament meant no time to… worry about colonies… Charles I was overthrown by Cromwell… by 1688 England has the Glorious Revolution with William and Mary
What were the parts of the Navigation Acts (1660, 1663)?
forbade all trade with colonies except in ships owned or constructed in England or colonies
- ships must be manned, at least 3/4,by England or colonial crew
- forbade all transportation from the colonies of ENUMERARED COMMODITIES… sugar, cotton, indigo, dyes, ginger, tobacco
- forbade transportation of Asiatic or European goods unless the goods were shipped from England.
List some of the later acts that strengthened the Navigation Acts:
Wool Act, Hat Act, Iron Act, etc.
What are some Sig of the Navigation Acts?
English policies were dictated by the merchants in England at expense of colonies… this meant ultimate conflict or smuggling.
English govt. tried to step up revenues by creating a larger volume of dutiable goods… this eventually creates taxation issue… albeit indirect taxation at this point
England had to bear expense of enforcing these acts against colonies who didn’t obey and against other nation who would trade with colonies anyway.
In what way were the Dutch the greatest threat to English mercantilist policies?
had largest merchant fleet
- had taken over Portuguese trade in East Indies and opened trade with Japan
- Dutch privateers were getting rich raiding Spanish ships
- Dutch controlled the lumber trade in Europe
- Dutch dominated Europe fishing
- Dutch imported wool from England and made finished woolen products.
In what ways were the Dutch settlements in North America strategically and economically important?
Hudson River was the greatest access to interior of Appalachians
- From Hudson could reach the Miss Valley via the Mohawk or St. Lawrence… Hudson was an outlet for fur trade
- From the Hudson you could attack any interior points of North America.
What happened to the Dutch settlement at New Amsterdam?
King Charles II gave New York territories to his brother James, the Duke of York, he sent 400 men there and the Dutch surrendered.
3 types of colonial government.
Royal… control by king directly
- Proprietary… title charter is granted by the king to a person to administer the area
- Self-Governing… Charter from the king grants colony right to administer itself
How did proprietors hope to use their colonies?
Grow rich from sale of lands… or charge annual fees (rents) called QUITRENTS…1shilling per 50 acres
How did these new proprietary colonies--- NY, NJ, Carolinas, Penn--- differ from Maryland, the first proprietary colony?
What is signif about this immigration?
- few of their settlers actually came from England
- settlers were from Netherlands, Sweden (which once had colonies in North America), Scotland,Ireland, Wales, France, Germany
Start of American Melting pot… became a characteristic of America to seek greener pastures over here
What were the Duke’s Laws?
- Duke of Yorks’ governor used them to try and placate independent minded New Englanders living on Long Island
- nonetheless, they continued to object to paying taxes without representation, etc. very SIGNIF… early idea on taxation
NY attracted few settlers, so what was the Duke forced to do?
allow the colonists to have a representative assembly
What was one of the first acts passed by the new assembly? How is it signif?
Passed a CHARTER OF LIBERTIES… stated the rights of inhabitants… trial by jury,representative assembly… SIGNIF… early Bill of Rights, even tho James later repudiates the Charter after he becomes King
Who were the two proprietors of New Jersey?
James gave NJ to Lord Berkeley and Geo Carteret
James did not give Berkeley and Carteret govt authority… only property rights…
What did Berk and Carteret do anyway?
What is signif about this?
- They still appointed a representative Assembly and governor
- showed a lack of communication and control by the authorities in England
What happened to East and West New Jersey by 1702?
Became a Royal colony… a fate for most…
Carolina was granted a charter in 1663 to a group of proprietors… Duke of Albemarle, John Berkeley, Carteret, etc… they allowed the settlers to have a governor and popularly elected assembly… they also provided the settlers with a constitution.
What is signif about this constitution?
written by great political scientist, John Locke… many of his ideas used by Jefferson in Declaration of Independence, although not all Locke’s ideas were in the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina..
- allowed for the structure of govt to match one’s property worth… had a governor appointed by proprietors, two house legislature, upper house of nobles, lower house of commoners… upper house initiated legislation…
- BUT SHOWED a new govt structure later used of a bicameral legislature
How were slaves signif to Carolina?
Taught planters to grow rice which became a valuable export for the colony… especially in South around Chastown