analysis of devel Quiz 1 pt 1.txt

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  1. proteostasis
    • safeguards cells from protein folding challenges
    • ie neurogenerative diseases: result in protein CLUMPING
  2. Chaperone expression results
    with Human core chaperone expression: PROTEOSTASIS is maintained to prevent Huntington's (protein aggregation, clumping)
  3. Cleavage lifecycle types
    • Holoblastic: Cleavage furrow extends THRU ENTIRE yolk
    • Isolecithal: Eggs have Sparse, EQUALLY distributed yolk
    • Take home: Different amounts of RNA and protein based on HOW cleavage breaks thru egg
  4. Gastrulation Cell movement types
    • Invagination: grows up in an inward loop
    • Delamination: grows as an inner layer from outside in
    • Ingression, Epiboly, involution
    • Take home: LOCATION of cells determines WHICH types of cells they will ultimately become
  5. Gastrula cell types
    • Ectoderm: Outer surface, neurons and neural crests
    • Mesoderm: bone tissue, red blood cells, facial muscle
    • Endoderm: Digestive (pancreatic cells), Thyroid cells, respitory (lung cells)
    • Germ layers: Also required to maintain germ cells for reproduction
  6. Fate Map
    • Tells which area is responsible for what type of cells (ie: Animal pole responsible for ectoderm in tunicate)
    • Can see this with Visuallization: in worms, since they're translucent
    • Can determine using Fluorescence: stain cell and then see where stain goes once adult
  7. Gene components
    • Promoter region: w TATA box
    • Transcription initiation and Translation initiation site
    • Exons and introns
    • Translation TErmination site
    • Poly-A tail
    • Transcription termination site
  8. Cis-regulated enhancer elements
    Proteins bind to ENHANCER element and allow for EXPRESSION of the gene
  9. Differential TRANSCRIPTION due to:
    • 1. Histone methylation/acetylation
    • meth: condenses DNA to STOP expression
    • acet: loosen chromatin to AID in increased expression
    • 2. DNA methylation and TFs
    • Methyl groups stick out: Blocks TRANSCRIPTION factors from binding to enhancer to allow for promoter to start expression
  10. Selective mRNA processing:
    • 1. RNA processing
    • Differential processing during development aids in determining WHAT TYPE OF CELL is going to result, aka depends on which RNA is sent out of nucleus
    • 2. RNA splicing
    • Splicing kinases splice different components of nuclear RNA to create DIFFERENT PRODUCTS
  11. Selective mRNA TRANSLATION
    • 1. Blocked by proteins
    • 2. microRNAs
    • If microRNA finds a Transcript: leads to degradation
    • 3. Localization important
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analysis of devel Quiz 1 pt 1.txt
2013-09-04 04:35:04
anal devel

quiz 1
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