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2013-09-04 04:00:10
Socialization Psych

Psych 1 Socialization
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  1. Altruistic Behavior
    Helping others despite a cost to ourselves
  2. Prisoner's dilemma
    A situation where people choose between a cooperative act and not a competitive act that benefits themselves but hurts others

    • if both don't confess, 1 year
    • if both confess, 5 years
    • if 1 rats the other out, 1 gets 20 years
  3. Two reasons for cooperating
    People want a reputation for being fair and helpful

    People who do cooperate punish those who don't
  4. Diffusion of Responsibility
    We feel less responsibility to act when other people are able to act

    Ex: Helping someone when there is already a crowd of people there
  5. Pluralistic Ignorance
    Describes a situation in which people say nothing, and each person falsely assumes that others have a better-informed opinion
  6. Social loafing
    The tendency to "loaf" or work less hard when sharing work with other people

    Example: The students with headphones who were asked to scream and contribute experiment
  7. Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
    The main cause of anger and aggression is frustration--an obstacle that stands in the way of doing something or obtaining something
  8. Deindividuation

    Perceiving others as anonymous, without any real personality

    Perceiving others as less than humans (in war)
  9. Social neuroscience
    The use of brain measurements to shed light on social behavior
  10. Social Perception and Cognition
    The processes for learning about others and making inferences from that information
  11. Primacy Effect
    The first information we learn about someone influences us more than later information does
  12. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
    Expectations that increase the probability of the predicted event

    First impressions
  13. Stereotype
    Belief or expectation about a group of people
  14. Prejudice
    An unfavorable attitude towards a group of people
  15. Discrimination
    Unequal treatment of different groups
  16. Implicit Association Test
    Measures reactions to combinations of categories, such as flowers and pleasant.

    Detects underlying prejudice
  17. Multiculturalism
    Accepting, recognizing, and enjoying differences among people and groups
  18. Attribution
    The set of thought processes we use to assign causes to our own behavior and that of others

    (Winning the lottery and everyone wants to be your friend)
  19. Internal Attributions
    Explanations based on someone's attitudes, personality traits, abilities, or other characteristics

    Ex: he walked because "he liked the exercise"
  20. External Attributions
    Explanations based on the situation, including events that would influence almost anyone

    he walked "because his car wouldn't start"
  21. Consensus Information
    How the person's behavior compares with other peoples' behavior
  22. Consistency Information
    How the person's behavior varies from one time to the next
  23. Distinctiveness
    How the person's behavior varies from one situation to the other
  24. Actor-observer effect
    People are more likely to make internal attributions for other people's behavior and more likely to make external attributions for their own

    You are an "actor" when you try to explain the cause of your own behavior and an "observer" when you try to explain the cause of someone elses behavior
  25. Fundamental attribution errorĀ (correspondence bias)
    The tendency to make internal attributions for people's behavior even when we see evidence for an external influence on behavior

    (real attitudes of people that are forced to write essays praising on condemning Fidel Castro)
  26. Self-serving biases
    Attributions that we adopt to maximize credit for success and minimize blame for failure

    (did good an test because of intelligence, but did badly because of hard test)
  27. Self-Handicapping Strategies
    Intentionally putting oneself at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for failure

    (You think you will do poorly on a test, so you stay out and party the night before)
  28. Conformity
    Altering one's behavior to match other people's behavior or expectations
  29. Group Polarization
    When nearly all people in a particular group lean in the same direction and group discussion moves as a whole even further in that direction
  30. Groupthink
    An extreme form of group polarization that occurs when members of a group suppress their doubts about a group's decision for fear of making a bad impression or disturbing group harmony

    (President supporting the dumb idea of the Bay of Pigs invasion)