a suspect becomes convinced they committed a crime they did NOT commit due to a long or intense interrogation
Authentic-Voluntary False Confessions
occurs when someone suffering from delusions falsely confesses to a crime with little/no pressure from interrogators
Certainty of Guilt
the interrogation tactic of persistently confronting the suspect with accusations of guilt and using evidence ploys to bolster the accusations
Equal-Focus Camera Perspective
a neutral point of view in a video recording showing both the subject and the interrogator.
a technique used to strengthen "certainty of guilt" strategy in interrogations. Police site real OR fake evidence that establishes guilt
the interrogation strategy of offering excuses for committing the crime. Works by redefining the act as less serious, by shifting blame onto someone else, or blaming the circumstances surrounding the act.
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency to attribute other people's behavior to dispositional causes and to dismiss the situational pressures acting on the person.
Good Cop-Bad Cop Approach
psychological interrogation technique where 2 interrogators work as a team: 1 plays the intimidator and the other plays the sympathetic
Instrumental-Coerced False Confession
as a result of a long/intense interrogation, a suspect falsely confesses to a crime in order to end the interrogation/ because they become convinced that confession is their best option.
Instrumental-Voluntary False Confession
occurs when a suspect freely admits to a crime they didn't commit - usually to protect someone or for "fame and glory"
Loss of Control
during an interrogation, the interrogator controls the environment and removes the psychological comfort of familiar surroundings
constitutional guarantees that must be read to all suspects in police custody - consists of 4 parts.
Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE)
England 1986 - regulates interrogation tactics:
cannot lie, bully, threaten, etc ...
All interrogations must be recorded & all vulnerable suspects must be accompanied by an "appropriate adult."
a method of interrogation consisting of 9 steps which focuses on how to facilitate the interrogation, how to communicate with the suspect, and what to say to the suspect
during the interrogation, the suspect is held alone to deprive him or her of emotional support and to reduce contradictory information
Totality of Circumstances Standard
a decision is based on all the surrounding facts that give context to a case. This standard is used to evaluate the "voluntariness" of a defendant's confession
an abusive interrogation method that involves causing a suspect to experience the sensation of drowning