Stress

Home > Preview

The flashcards below were created by user kirstenp on FreezingBlue Flashcards.


  1. Define 'stress'. And what are the two types?
    • A state of psychological and physiological arousal in response to changes in internal and external environment.
    • Eustress: Stress that is positive in nature
    • Distress: Stress that is negative in nature
  2. What is the fight or flight response?
    • The automatic arousal of the body that is activated by the SNS when confronted with a threat allowing them to flee (flight) or confront it (fight). 
    • Sympathetic NS sends message to adrenal medulla which releases adrenaline and noradrenaline.
  3. Describe the HPA axis
    Hypothalamus is activated in response to a stressor, which in stimulates the Pituitary gland to activate the adrenal gland to release the stress hormone cortisol
  4. Describe Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping
    • Emphasised the importance of cognitive processes when confronted with a stressor
    • The way the stressor was perceived was important. Showed that stress is subjective
    • Focused on the relationship between the individual and the environment when assessing whether a stressor caused harm, threat and challenging.
  5. Describe primary appraisal
    • When confronted with a stressful situation judgement is made
    • 1.Has no significance.
    • 2.Is benign. Also known as a positive or
    • desirable encounter
    • 3. Is stressful: if stressful then evaluating whether it has caused Harm, is threatening or challenging.
  6. Describe what happens during secondary appraisal
    • The stage where the individual looks at what internal and external resources are available to them for coping with the stress
    • Internal resources: will power, motivation
    • External resources: social support, professional help
  7. What is coping and the different types of coping?
    • Coping: Changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to attempt to manage stressors
    • Problem focused coping: fixes the source of the stress
    • Emotion focused coping: strategies that deal with emotional responses to stress (distractions, ignoring it,
  8. What are strengths of the transactional model?
    • It used human subjects
    • it took into account different mental processes and emotions of individuals (acknowledges individual perception)
    • Focused on how people cope with stress
  9. What are limitations or the transactional model?
    • Lack of emphasis on physiological elements of stress
    • It does not include social, cultural and environmental factors when looking at how individuals perceive stress
  10. What are social, cultural and environmental factors of stress
    Image Upload
  11. What is allostasis? Name a difference between homeostasis and allostasis
    • Achieves physiological and/or psychological stability through behavioural or physiological change and adapting to the stressors
    • Allostasis is a much more dynamic and adaptive process compared to homeostasis
  12. What is 'allostatic load'?
    • The cumulative cost to the body due to allostatic response
    • The frequent occurrence of stress responses (F-F HPA axis) can cause long term damage to the body due to the constant exposure to stress hormones.
  13. What is 'Biofeedback'? Provide 3 examples
    • A technique that enables an individual to receive information about their physiological responses to stress using sensitive instruments.
    • In therapy, the patient is taught how to change these levels by altering their thoughts, feelings and behaviour
    • GSR, ECG, EMG
  14. What is meditation? Relaxation?
    • Meditation: An actively occurring ASC that uses mental exercises to become highly focused on one single thought at the exclusion of others. 
    • Relaxation: any activity that brings about a state of reduced psychological and/or physiological tension.
    • Both reduce physiological arousal
  15. Describe how physical exercises reduces stress
    • Physical exertion to improve one's health
    • Releases endorphins which is a natural pain relief
    • Reduces muscle tension
    • Uses up excess energy from stress hormones
    • Enhances physical health
    • Distracts the person by focusing on movement not stressor
  16. How is social support a strategy for coping with stress?
    • Refers to the network of family, friends, neighbours and general community that are available to assist us during times of need.
    • Can assist through: Tangible assistance eg. food, money
    • Emotional support- reassurance 
    • Information support- Advice
    • Appraisal support- helps the individual understand the stressor and the resources available

Card Set Information

Author:
kirstenp
ID:
232768
Filename:
Stress
Updated:
2013-09-04 11:16:17
Tags:
Stress Chapter 19 psychology
Folders:

Description:
Stress
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview