Card Set Information
Stress Chapter 19 psychology
Define 'stress'. And what are the two types?
A state of psychological and physiological
in response to changes in internal and external environment.
: Stress that is positive in nature
: Stress that is negative in nature
What is the fight or flight response?
The automatic arousal of the body that is activated by the SNS when confronted with a threat allowing them to flee (flight) or confront it (fight).
sends message to
Describe the HPA axis
Hypothalamus is activated in response to a stressor, which in stimulates the Pituitary gland to activate the adrenal gland to release the stress hormone cortisol
Describe Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping
Emphasised the importance of
when confronted with a stressor
The way the stressor was perceived was important. Showed that
stress is subjective
Focused on the relationship between the individual and the environment when assessing whether a stressor caused harm, threat and challenging.
When confronted with a stressful situation judgement is made
1.Has no significance.
2.Is benign. Also known as a positive or
3. Is stressful
: if stressful then evaluating whether it has caused
Describe what happens during
The stage where the individual looks at what internal and external resources are available to them for coping with the stress
: will power, motivation
: social support, professional help
What is coping and the different types of coping?
: Changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to attempt to manage stressors
Problem focused coping
: fixes the source of the stress
Emotion focused coping
: strategies that deal with emotional responses to stress (distractions, ignoring it,
What are strengths of the transactional model?
It used human subjects
it took into account different mental processes and emotions of individuals (acknowledges individual perception)
Focused on how people cope with stress
What are limitations or the transactional model?
Lack of emphasis on
elements of stress
It does not include social, cultural and environmental factors when looking at how individuals perceive stress
What are social, cultural and environmental factors of stress
What is allostasis? Name a difference between homeostasis and allostasis
Achieves physiological and/or psychological stability through behavioural or physiological
and adapting to the stressors
Allostasis is a much more
process compared to homeostasis
What is 'allostatic load'?
cumulative cost to the body
due to allostatic response
The frequent occurrence of stress responses (F-F HPA axis) can cause long term damage to the body due to the constant exposure to stress hormones.
What is 'Biofeedback'? Provide 3 examples
A technique that enables an individual to
receive information about their physiological responses
to stress using
In therapy, the patient is taught how to change these levels by altering their thoughts, feelings and behaviour
GSR, ECG, EMG
What is meditation? Relaxation?
: An actively occurring ASC that uses mental exercises to become highly focused on one single thought at the exclusion of others.
: any activity that brings about a state of reduced psychological and/or physiological tension.
Both reduce physiological arousal
Physical exertion to improve one's health
which is a natural pain relief
Reduces muscle tension
Uses up excess energy
from stress hormones
Enhances physical health
the person by focusing on movement not stressor
a strategy for coping with stress?
Refers to the network of family, friends, neighbours and general community that are available to assist us during times of need.
Can assist through
: Tangible assistance eg. food, money
Emotional support- reassurance
Information support- Advice
Appraisal support- helps the individual understand the stressor and the resources available