Pharmacology: Life Span Considerations

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Author:
Fyrcracker
ID:
232837
Filename:
Pharmacology: Life Span Considerations
Updated:
2013-09-04 15:21:32
Tags:
Pregnancy Pediatrics Geriatrics
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Description:
Pharmacology life span condisterations.
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  1. With pregnancy what are physiologic changes due to?
    • Hormonal Influences
    • Growth of fetus
    • Mother's physical adaptation to changes
  2. What changes occur in ABSORPTION with pregnancy?
    • Delayed stomach emptying
    • Prolonged intestinal transit time
    • Enhanced absorption of lipid-soluble meds
    • GI PH: morning sickness, OTC antacids
    • ^ absorption of IM's
    • Placenta allows transfer of substances between mother and fetus - as placental flow ^ so does drug transfer.
  3. During pregnancy there is increased body fat & total body water, how does this change drug distribution?
    it ^ distribution of fat soluble drugs & <bloodstream concentration = prolonged 1/2 life.
  4. During pregnancy plasma albumin (protein) levels fall, how does this affect drug distribution?
    ^free drug = unbound drugs reach the fetus
  5. How does pregnancy affect the metabolism?
    • ^metabolism
    • ^level of liver enzyme activity = ^liver clearence of drug = shortened 1/2 life
    • Fetus relies on maternal processes to metabolize drugs
  6. How does pregnancy change elimination?
    • ^GFR: ^excretion of drugs
    • Fetal kidneys rapidly excrete water-soluble drugs
    • Fetus effect: prolonged exposure to drugs & metabolites.
    • Fat-soluble drugs diffuse back across placental membranes.
  7. What is Tetratogenicity?
    The ability of a substance to interfere w/fetal development.
  8. Explain the Pregnancy Catagories.
    • A - No risk to fetus
    • B - No risk in animal studies, assumed no risk to fetus.
    • C - Animal studies indicate risk, determine risk vs. benefit¬†
    • D - Risk to fetus has been proved, determine risk vs. benefit (life/death conditions)
    • X - A risk to fetus has been proved. ¬†DO NOT GIVE.
  9. Ethnopharmacology integrates what 3 pharm drug actions?
    • Pharmacokinetics
    • Pharmacodynamics
    • Pharmacogenetics
  10. What does Transcultural Nursing include?
    • Traditional health practices: teas, herbs, spices, etc.
    • Complementary health practices
    • Alternative health practices
    • Mainstream health practices
  11. What does Autonomy mean & how does it apply to nursing?
    Independence or freedom, nurses must respect another persons rights to make their own independent decisions.
  12. What are basic Ethical Principles?
    • Respect for a person: Autonomy
    • Beneficence: active goodness/kindness
    • Justice
    • Truth Telling
  13. For drug research there why are there basic ethical principles?
    • Protect individual autonomy
    • Protect clients & subjects from harm
    • Avoid fraud & duress in health care
    • Encourage professionals to be thorough & clear in communicating information
    • Promote client-educated decision making
    • Promote self-determination of client
  14. Human Clinical Experimentation has 4 phases of purpose, what are they?
    • Phase I: to determine human dosage range based on healthy subjects & identify pharmacokinetics.
    • Phase II: to demonstrate safety & efficacy of drug in subjects w/disease to be treated
    • Phase III & IV: to demonstrate safety & efficacy of drug for well client population; to incluce long-term data if a chronic regimen.
  15. Some Nursing responsibilities of a clinical trial?
    • Recruit & assess study subjects
    • Thorough understanding of protocols
    • Validity & reliability of measurement instruments
    • Communication & teamwork w/other HCP & sponsors.
    • Knowledge of HIPPA requirements
    • Budget negotiations
    • etc...

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