Fundamentals of Nursing

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  1. Blanch
    Pinch Test
  2. Caries
  3. Cerumen
    Ear Wax
  4. Dermis
    2nd skin layer, inner layer.
  5. Diaphoresis
  6. Epidermis
    1st layer of skin, outer layer.
  7. Eschar
    Dead/necrotic skin.
  8. Exacerbation
    • Condition that worsens.
    • EG: COPD Exacerbation
  9. Induration
  10. Maceration
    Softening, usually used to describe skin surrounding a wound.
  11. Syncope
    Light headed, causes fainting.
  12. Apnea
    Absence of breathing.
  13. Arrhythmia
    Abnormal heart beat.
  14. Auscultation
    Listening, used during exams, usually with a stethesecope.
  15. Cheyne-stokes Respiration
    Shallow breathing, followed by an absence of breathing.
  16. Stridor
    Shrill, harsh sound on inspiration; caused by obstruction of the upper air passages, as occurs in croup or laryngitis.
  17. Defervescence
    To get rid of the fever.
  18. Hypoxemia
    Low O2 in the blood, causes low O2 sats.
  19. Korotkoff Sounds
    The different sound while obtaining a BP
  20. Kussmaul's Respirations
    High/quick rate and depth, but, a long exhale.
  21. Pulse Deficit
    A difference in apical and radial pulses.
  22. Pulse Pressure
    The difference of systole and diastole.
  23. Pyrexia
    Fever >100.2
  24. Pyrogens
    Causative agents of fever.
  25. Ronchi
    Dry rattles during auscultation of lungs.
  26. Shock
    Circulatory failure
  27. Stertor
    Snoring sound caused by blockage in bronchioles.
  28. Stroke Volume
    Amount of blood exiting the heart with each beat.
  29. Incubation Period
    1st stage, begins when antigen first enters the body lasts until symptoms occur. Can be transmitted during this stage.
  30. Prodromal Period
    Lasts between onset of vague mild symptoms and disease specific symptoms. Highly contagious.
  31. Illness Period
    3rd stage, localized and systemic symptoms occur. General malaise symptoms accompanied with disease specific ones. Depending on antigen depends on severity of symptoms and contagion.
  32. Convalescent Period
    Last stage, occurs when symptoms begin to subside and persons health is restored.
  33. Sodium (Na)
    135-145 mEq/L
  34. Bicarbonate HCO3
    22-26 mmol/L
  35. PaO2
    80-100 mm Hg
  36. PaCO2
    35-45 mmHg
  37. Blood PH
  38. ERCP
    Endoscopic Retrograde Choliangiopancreatography
  39. Agonists
    Enhances; works with
  40. Antagonists
    Works against
  41. Ablation
    Refers to removal of tissue
  42. The 5 categories of surgery:
    Diagnostic, exploratory, curative, palliative, and cosmetic.
  43. Adjuvant Analgesics
    Drugs not classified as analgesics, but can be used for pain. IE muscle relaxants.
  44. FLACC
    • Face
    • Legs
    • Activity
    • Console
    • Cry

    scale used to determine pain in a non vocal patient
  45. NIPS
    • Neonate
    • Infant 
    • Pain 
    • Scale
  46. PIPP
    • Premi
    • Infant
    • Pain
    • Profile
  47. CPAP
    • Continuos 
    • Positive
    • Airway
    • Pressure

    Keeps airways open during sleep.
  48. Afferent/Efferent Pathway
    Afferent (ascending) carries messages to the brain.

    Efferent (descending) carries messages away from the brain.
  49. Nociceptive Pain
    Nociceptors are irritated. Stubbed toe, superficial burn etc...
  50. Neuropathic Pain
    Caused by a malfunction in the nervous system. Due to injury or illness. Most commonly chronic pain. spinal injuries is an example.
  51. Respiratory Acidosis
    • PH decreases
    • PaCO2 increases
  52. Respiratory Alkalosis
    • PH increases 
    • PaCO2 decreases
  53. Metabolic Acidosis
    • PH decreases
    • Bicarb decreases
  54. Metabolic Alkalosis
    • PH increases 
    • Bicarbonate increases
  55. Hypovolemic Shock
    Inadequate blood volume to maintain supply of oxygen and nutrients.
  56. Carcinogenic Shock
    When the heart fails as a pump
  57. Obstructive Shock
    Physical impairment of adequate blood flow
  58. Distributive Shock
    Excess dilation of vessels. 

    Anaphylactic Shock (chemicals causing vasodilation during an allergic rxn)

    Septic Shock (hypotension unresponsive to fluids, metabolic acidosis, acute encephalopathy oliguria, and/or coag probs)

    Neurogenic Shock (disruption in the nervous system affects the vasomotor center in the medulla, disrupting sympathetic nerve impulses. This causes vasodilation.)
  59. ARDS
    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndorme

    Leads to tissue hypoxia and anoxia, respiratory failure, metabolic acidosis.

    Then causes cardiac issues. Disseminated intravascular coagulation, this is caused by destructed RBC's releasing clotting factors.
  60. Early/Reversible/Compensatory Stage of Shock Symptoms
    • Thirsty
    • Irritable/Restless
    • Decreased-BP & pulse pressure, urine output, and hypoactive bowel.
    • Increased-pulse (unless neurogenic), resprs (rate and depth), blood glucose.  
    • Cool/pale skin
  61. Intermediate/Progressive Stage of Shock Symptoms
    • Confused/listlessness
    • Tachycardiac, with weak thready pulses
    • Subnormal temp (unless septic)
    • Skin is cool, clammy, slow refil and, cyanotic
    • Urine output decline; possible kidney failure
    • Decreased BP, pulse pressure is narrow
    • Peripheral edema
    • Muscle weakness
    • Resprs increase, deep, crackles.
  62. Irreversible/Refactory Stage of Shock Symptoms
    • Loss of consciousness
    • Systole falls, diastole can reach zero
    • Pulse is irregular
    • Resprs are slow shallow and irregular
    • Little to no urine output
    • Skin is cold, clammy and cyanotic
  63. How long does it take brain cells to begin to die when anoxic?
    Brain cells begin to die at 4 minutes
  64. SIRS
    Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Card Set:
Fundamentals of Nursing
2013-10-02 04:58:25

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