Intro to the Human Body Chapter 2

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elizabethsanchez_1025
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232897
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Intro to the Human Body Chapter 2
Updated:
2013-09-04 17:29:32
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Intro Chemistry
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Gerard J. Tortora Bryan Derrickson
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  1. How many elements are present in the human body...and the major ones include?
    26 presents and O, C, H, N and make up 96%
  2. what is an atom?
    smallest unit of an element that retains characteristics of an element
  3. what does an atom contain?
    nucleus that has protons and neutrons in the middle of the element
  4. total charge is neutral of protons # and what else?
    electrons #
  5. Number of protons = number of electrons T/F
    True and also equals the atomic number
  6. number of protons + number of neutrons = ?
    mass number
  7. when an atom gives up or gains an electron, it becomes what?
    ion
  8. when atoms share electrons they form ?
    a molecule
  9. 2 or more different atoms held together with chemical bonds =
    a compound
  10. 3 types of bonds?
    Ionic, Covalent, Hydrogen
  11. Which type of bond shares electrons?
    Covalent
  12. What bond does not share electrons?
    Ion
  13. which bond is the strongest/ and weakest?
    strongest covalent, weakest hydrogen
  14. Describe an ionic bond
    is when an electron is donated or accepted from another atom
  15. if an electron is accepted an atom has a what positive or negeative charge
    negative charge also known as anion
  16. if electron is donated atoms become postive or negative and what are they called :
    positive ion and called cation
  17. describe a covalent bond?
    sharing of electrons in the outer shell
  18. describe hydrogen atoms?
    hydrogen must be present and attracts by the opposite charge
  19. What are the chemical reaction types?
    Synthesis, decomposition, exchange, reversible
  20. what is A+B-->AB reaction
    synthesis
  21. what is a synthesis also known as
    anabolism
  22. what type of reaction is AB-->A+B
    decomposition
  23. Decomposition is also known as?
    catabolism
  24. describe inorganic  chemicals?
    they lack carbon hydrogen bonds
  25. organic compounds
    contain C-H bonds
  26. give some examples of organic compounds?
    carboydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
  27. give examples of inorganic compounds
    water
  28. PH concept the smaller the number the more what?
    Acidic
  29. PH concept the larger the number the more what?
    alkaline
  30. PH Concept: Neutral is what number on the scale
    7
  31. The most common source of energy for humans comes from what
    carbohydrates
  32. what are the building blocks/ monimers of carbohydrates?
    Monosaccharide; simple sugars, disaccharide; two bonded monosaccharides , polysaccharide more complex
  33. what type of carbohydrate is stored in animals liver, and muscles
    glycogen
  34. what polysaccaharide i stored in plants
    starch
  35. what type of carbs is found in fiber
    cellulose
  36. Lipids are  soluble or insoluble in water and what is their function?
    insouble they hate water; protect insulate and provide energy
  37. what are triglycerides?
    the most abundant composed of 3 fatty chains and 1 glcerol, may be saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated
  38. what are phospholipids?
    form lipid bilayer  in membranes
  39. what part of the phospholipids are attracted to water?
    hydrophilic the head
  40. proteins are composed of what?
    amino acids
  41. how many amino acids are there?
    20
  42. what are the groups of amino acids
    carboxyl and amino group
  43. amino acid chains are called
    peptide, dipeptide, tripeptide, polypeptide
  44. 50 or more amino acids is classified
    protein
  45. 49 or less amino acids are classified as
    polypeptide
  46. Enzymes are made of what?
    proteins
  47. the process of one enzyme working with another enzyme is called
    substrate
  48. the intraction of two enzymes and what the enzymes create is called
    a product
  49. DNA contains what bases?
    T-A C-G
  50. RNA contains what bases
    U-A C-G contains uracil
  51. Nucleotides are building blocks for what
    DNA and RNA
  52. DNA does what
    direct protein synthesis and cares genetic information
  53. RNA
    carries out protein synthesis by correctly sequencing amino acids
  54. what is ATP
    adenosine triphosphate
  55. What is the function of ATP
    carries energy in high-energy chemical bonds between terminal phosphate groups energy is relased when they break ATP> ADP

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