Intro to the Human Body Chapter 2
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Intro to the Human Body Chapter 2
Gerard J. Tortora Bryan Derrickson
How many elements are present in the human body...and the major ones include?
26 presents and O, C, H, N and make up 96%
what is an atom?
smallest unit of an element that retains characteristics of an element
what does an atom contain?
nucleus that has protons and neutrons in the middle of the element
total charge is neutral of protons # and what else?
Number of protons = number of electrons T/F
True and also equals the atomic number
number of protons + number of neutrons = ?
when an atom gives up or gains an electron, it becomes what?
when atoms share electrons they form ?
2 or more different atoms held together with chemical bonds =
3 types of bonds?
Ionic, Covalent, Hydrogen
Which type of bond shares electrons?
What bond does not share electrons?
which bond is the strongest/ and weakest?
strongest covalent, weakest hydrogen
Describe an ionic bond
is when an electron is donated or accepted from another atom
if an electron is accepted an atom has a what positive or negeative charge
negative charge also known as anion
if electron is donated atoms become postive or negative and what are they called :
positive ion and called cation
describe a covalent bond?
sharing of electrons in the outer shell
describe hydrogen atoms?
hydrogen must be present and attracts by the opposite charge
What are the chemical reaction types?
Synthesis, decomposition, exchange, reversible
what is A+B-->AB reaction
what is a synthesis also known as
what type of reaction is AB-->A+B
Decomposition is also known as?
describe inorganic chemicals?
they lack carbon hydrogen bonds
contain C-H bonds
give some examples of organic compounds?
carboydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
give examples of inorganic compounds
PH concept the smaller the number the more what?
PH concept the larger the number the more what?
PH Concept: Neutral is what number on the scale
The most common source of energy for humans comes from what
what are the building blocks/ monimers of carbohydrates?
Monosaccharide; simple sugars, disaccharide; two bonded monosaccharides , polysaccharide more complex
what type of carbohydrate is stored in animals liver, and muscles
what polysaccaharide i stored in plants
what type of carbs is found in fiber
Lipids are soluble or insoluble in water and what is their function?
insouble they hate water; protect insulate and provide energy
what are triglycerides?
the most abundant composed of 3 fatty chains and 1 glcerol, may be saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated
what are phospholipids?
form lipid bilayer
what part of the phospholipids are attracted to water?
hydrophilic the head
proteins are composed of what?
how many amino acids are there?
what are the groups of amino acids
carboxyl and amino group
amino acid chains are called
peptide, dipeptide, tripeptide, polypeptide
50 or more amino acids is classified
49 or less amino acids are classified as
Enzymes are made of what?
the process of one enzyme working with another enzyme is called
the intraction of two enzymes and what the enzymes create is called
DNA contains what bases?
RNA contains what bases
U-A C-G contains uracil
Nucleotides are building blocks for what
DNA and RNA
DNA does what
direct protein synthesis and cares genetic information
carries out protein synthesis by correctly sequencing amino acids
what is ATP
What is the function of ATP
carries energy in high-energy chemical bonds between terminal phosphate groups energy is relased when they break ATP> ADP