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Ch 1. 1.What is the difference between an ISO and an HSO?
The HSO is responsible for health and safety administration, whereas the ISO is focused on scene-specific operations.
Ch. 1. 2.Explain the history of today's safety officer in the industrial world as well as in the fire service.
World war 2 brought about safety officers, 1970 congress passed OSHA-both employees and employers responsible for safety. In 1987 NFPA1500 to 1521. In 2004 homeland security made NIMS the national response plan
Ch 1. 3.List and discuss the NFPA standards related to the ISO
NFPA 1500- basic premis to develop and administer an active health and safety programNFPA 1521-addressed authority, qualifications, and responsibilities of the safety officer
Ch 1. 4.What is the significance of the William Steiger Act?
In 1970 congress passed this act making way for OSHA-occupational safety and health administration. Responsibility of safety to both employee and employer
Ch 1. 5.How are the monetary costs associated with firefighter injuries and deaths paid for?
Workers compensation programs determine their premiums based on past injuries and deaths
Ch 1. 6.Discuss Current firefighter injury and death trends and the need for incident safety officer response
Average 105 firefighter fatalities a year, 1/3 on scene. In 2003: 50,000 injuries on the fire ground - 130 a day. Need ISO to bring those stats down
Ch 2. 1. List the three elements that affect work-place safety
Ch 2. 2.Explain the difference between the formal and informal processes
Formal processes: are SOP or SOG, departmental directives, temporary memorandumsInformal processes: obviously part of a department routine but are not written
Ch 2. 3.Describe four qualities of a well-written procedure
Good SOP start with good writtingClear outlineTested techniqueEasy interpretationApplicability to many scenariosSpecific on critical or life endangering points
Ch 2. 4.List and describe the external influences that can affect safety equipment design and purchase
OSHA regulations outline the equipment required for a given process to be accomplished (CFRs). WA state has Department of Labor and Industries.NFPA Standards minimum accetable standard for equipment.NIOSH, ANSI, and UL manufactures use to show their equipment meets design requirement
Ch 2. 5.List and briefly describe the three factors that influence a person's ability to act safely
- 1. Training: clear objectives, proficiency levels, applies real world, id hazards, define acceptable risks, list of options, act as trained. Must include right subjects.
- 2. Health- fit, stress, overexertion.
- 3. Attitude- slow and emotional.
Ch 2. 6.Define risk management
The process of minimizing the chance, degree, or probability of damage, loss, or injury
Ch 2. 7.List and explain the five steps of classic risk managemen
- 1. Identify hazards - ie smoke
- 2. Evaluate hazards- for frequency and severity
- 3. Priortize hazards- how severe
- 4. Control hazards- avoid, transfer, adaptation
- 5. Monitor hazards- decline injuries
Ch 3. 1.What has typically motivated the establishment of guiding publications
The majority of the publications were written as a result of a tragic event; therefore the ISO can use them as a basis to prevent similar tragedies from occuring.
Ch 3. 2.How are OSHA and NIOSH different?
OSHA is tasked with creating and enforcement of workplace law under the CFR's. NIOSH is the safety research and education which can recommend adjustment to CFR's. NIOSH has no enforcement responsibilities
Ch 3. 3.What is the significance of the US Dept of Homeland Security to the fire service?
DHS regulates the National Response Plan and made NIMS with FEMA grant money tied to NIMS compliance.
Ch 3. 4.Define regulations, codes, laws, and guides.
- 1. Regulations: detail and procedures that have the force of law-OSHA, CFRs, EPA.
- 2. Codes: work of law established by a rule-making authority. Uniform fire code.
- 3. Standards: set of rules, procedures, professional measurements. NFPA.
- 4. Laws: enforceable rules of conduct that help protect society. Statutory law, case law.
- 5. Guides: publications offer procedures, direcions, or standard of care. NIOSH.
Ch 3. 5.List the 11 topical areas in the NFPA 1500 chapter on emergency operations.
- 1. Incident manager
- 2. Communications
- 3. Risk management during operations
- 4. Personnel accountability
- 5. Members operating at emergency incidents
- 6. Control zones
- 7. Roadway incidents
- 8. Rapid intervention
- 9. Rehabilitation
- 10. Scenes of violence
- 11. Post incident analysis
6.What are the seven topical areas listed in NFPA1521 for functions of an ISO.
- 1. IMS
- 2. General incident safety
- 3. Fire suppression
- 4. Emergency medical services ops
- 5. Hazmat
- 6. Special operations
- 7. Postincident responsibilities
Ch 3. 7.What does IDLH stand for?
Immediately dangereous to life and health
Ch 3. 8.What responsibility does the ISO have in use of OSHA title 29 CFRs?
The ISO should have a site safety plans involving hazmat, confined space, trenches, hazardous energy.
Ch 4. 1.Explain the reasons that the ISO role should be preplanned.
- The ISO is most effective when they arrive early at an incident (NIOSH recommendation):
- 1. Early help evaluate hazards during ultrarapid change.
- 2. First 15-20 min, lots of tasks are going on.
- 3. Risks are greater early in an incident.
Ch 4. 2.List four examples of when an automatic ISO response is beneficial.
- 1. Residential and commercial fires.
- 2. Wildland-Interface fires.
- 3. Special team incidents.
- 4. Target hazard incidents.
- 5. Aircraft incidents.
- 6. Weather extremes.
Ch 4. 3.List four examples of when automatic ISO delegation should take place
- 1. Working incident
- 2. Growing span of control
- 3. Mutual aid incidents
- 4. Firefighter down/missing/trapped
Ch 4. 4.List three methods to get an ISO on-scene, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.
- 1. Training officer: know dept and have equipment. Not available all the time, too many hats to wear.
- 2. Health and safety committee member: familiar with saftey issues, ISO training easy to accomplish. Extra costs for ot and equipment.
- 3. All eligible officers: the pool to draw from is large. You need to train a large group of officers. BC.
- 4. Dedicated ISO: trained and ready to respond. Need funding and support.
Ch 4. 5.Explain the authority given to the incident safety officer by NFPA standards.
NFPA 1521 gives the ISO the authority to stop, alter, or terminate activities if an imminent threat exists.
Ch 4. 6.List four tools that can help the ISO be effective on scene.
- 1. Radio: contact with IC, working crews.
- 2. High visibility: vest - safety officer
- 3. PPE: to walk scene
- 4. Clipboard file box: note taking.
An intervention to immediately stop, alter, or suspend an action or operation due to an imminent threat.
An activity, condition, or inaction that will most certainly lead to injury or death.
Ch 5. 1.What are three things that need to be acquired to front-load for the ISO function?
- 1. NFPA 1021: standard on fire officer professional qualifications
- 2. Additional knowledge and skills
- 3. Certain attitude
Ch 5. 2.Discuss the concept of mastery and it's benefit to the ISO.
Mastery: 90/90 rule - 90% objective 90% of the time. Ability to perform with a certain unconscious competence. ISO needs to address important issues with a wealth of knowledge.
Ch 5. 3.How are efficiency and effectiveness different?
Effectiveness: doing the right things. Learning part.Efficiency: doing things right - performance part.
Ch 5. 4.What is the essential difference between learning and performance.
- Learning: is the aquisition of knowledge, skills
- Performance: demonstration of aquired knowlege and skills
Ch 5. 5.Describe the relationship among knowledge, skill, and attitude.
Knowledge: bring knowledge into application without supervision. Recognize situationsSkills: intellectual tasks such as hazard reduction, and problem solving. Determine, predict, implementAttitude: gain knowledge and skills to shape an attitude that supports the reduction of injury and death
Ch 5. 6.To check your attitude, what three questions can be asked of yourself?
- 1. What do I know about this?
- 2. How do I feel about it?
- 3. How should I handle it to show a concern for safety?
Ch 6. 1.What are the three ways loads are imposed on materials?
- 1. Axial load: on the beam
- 2. Eccentric load: middle of deck
- 3. Torsion load: sides of deck, take twisted torsion
Ch 6. 2.List three types of forces created when loads are imposed on materials.
- 1. Compression: push both sides on a beam
- 2. Tension: pulls on a structural member
- 3. Shear: load transferee to another structure member
Ch 6. 3.What is the definition of a beam?
A structural element that delivers loads perpendicularly to it's imposed load is called a beam.
Ch 6. 4.Explain the effects of fire on steel structural elements.
Cold drawn steel loses 55% at 800FExtruded steel loses 50% at 1100FAt 1000F steel elongates 10 inches
Ch 6. 5.How does a masonry wall achieve strength?
Compressive strength using motar. No tensil or shear strength.
Ch 6. 6.List and define the five common types of building construction
- Type 1: Fire-Resistive, approved noncombustable, concrete encased steel, monolithic poured cement, steel spray on fire protection. Large multiple-story-hard to fight rely on no collapse.
- Type 2: Noncombustible, less rating-steel not coated makes for collapse. Warehouses, small arenas, newer churches. Building do not burn but heat causes collapse.
- Type 3: Ordinary, load bearing walls noncombustable masonry with wood floors, ceilings, structure members. Taxpayer, now strip malls. Spreaders-void spaces.
- Type 4: Heavy Timber, masonary exterior walls with 8"" wood laminated beams for structure, floor, roof. Warehouses, older churches, manufactoring.
- Type 5: Wood frame, new homes, small business, chain hotels built with wood.
Ch 6. 7.What is a hybrid building? List several types.
Combine 2 types of construction. Expect rapid collapse due to low mass high surface to mass exposure of structural elements.
Ch 6. 8.List in order, the five step analytical approach to predicting building collapse.
- 1. Classify the construction type
- 2. Determine structural involvement
- 3. Visualize and trace loads
- 4. Evaluate time
- 5. Predict and communicate collapse potential
Ch 6. 9.List several factors that accelerate the time that a structural element will fail under fire conditions.
- 1. Lighter structural elements
- 2. Heavier imposed load
- 3. No time window for construction
- 4. Brown dark smoke light weight times up
- 5. Gravity and time are constant, resistance is not
Ch 7. 1.What is smoke?
The products of incomplete combustion that includes an aggregate of solids, areosols, and fire gases that are toxic, flammable, and volatile.
Ch 7. 2.List common hostile fire events and their associated warning signs.
- Flashover: turbulent smoke flow, rollover, autoignition outside.
- Backdraft: yellowish gray smoke, bowing black stained windows, signs of extreme heat on outside.
- Smoke explosion: smoke trapped above fire, signs of growing fire, pressurizing.
- Rapid fire spread: increase in smoke spread, smoke flowing from hallways faster than firefighter can move.
Ch 7. 3.What are the four attributes of smoke?
- 1. Volume: sets stage for offgassing in a given space.
- 2. Velocity: speed, means pressure. Heat or smoke volume. Box cannot absorb any more heat-precussor to flashover.
- 3. Density: thickness, how much fuel laden in the smoke.
- 4. Color: distance to a fire, white new, black hot unburned.
Ch 7. 4.How do the four smoke attributes contribute to the understanding of fire behavior within a building?
Determine the location, stage, and spread potential of a fire.
Ch 7. 5. What is meant by the term "Black Fire?"
Describe smoke that is high volume, turbulent velocity, ultra dense, and deep black. Charring, heat damage to steel, content destruction, victim death. Over 1000F. No FF should be near it. Vent and Cool.
Ch 7. 6. Explain how influencing factors can affect smoke attributes.
- Weather: temperature, humidity, wind change
- Thermal Balance: sucking, puffing and breathing smoke into the building indicate rapid fire with increased air.
- Container size: Light, thin smoke showing from more than one opening of a very large building is a significant observation.
- Firefighting efforts:Color of smoke should change with efforts, if not you're not getting the job done. PPV - if smoke become blacker and thicker it is making conditions worse.
Ch 7. 7.List the three steps of the reading smoke process.
- 1. View the Volume: velocity, density, color of smoke - compare from where smoke is emitting, indicates fire size, location, spread potential.
- 2. Analyze the contributing factors: affect volume, velocity, density, color - should refine and or confirm your read.
- 3. Rate of change of each attribute: measured in seconds, you got a problem.
Ch 8. 1.Describe the difference between Dangerous and Risky.
From the community perspective we believe firefighting to be inherently dangereous. From the fire service perspective the risks of many specific dangers are well known.
Ch 8. 2. List the three influences on risk-taking values.
- Community Expectations: the community sees firefighters risking their lives and expect similar response in their emergencies.
- Fire Service Standards: NFPA 1500, 1561, 1521 - risk a life to save a known life, Perform in a predictable, practiced manner to save valued property, take no risk to save what's lost, default to defensive when conditions deteriorate quickly.
- Department Values and Skills: The ISO should recognize when crews are attempting to perform a skill for which they have never prepared.
Ch 8. 3.List the risk management concepts out-lined in NFPA standards.
Risk a life to save a known life.Perform in a predictable, practiced manner to save valued property.Take no risk to save what's lost.Default to defensive when conditions deteriorate quickly.
Ch 8. 4.What is "valued property?"
Physical property whose loss will cause harm to the community.
Ch 8. 5.What is meant by situational awareness?
The degree of accuracy by which one's perception of the current environment mirrors reality; applied to the ISO, situational awareness is the ability to accurately read potential risks and recognize factors that influence the incident outcome.
Ch 8. 6.Describe three methods to read risk at an incident.
- 1. Collect Information: read the building, read the smoke, read firefighter effectiveness
- 2: Analyze: define principel hazard, time, ahead or behind the power curve, what's to be gained
- 3: Judge Risk: within risk taking values? are we reducing risks?
Ch 8. 7.What is vicarious learning?
Learning from the mistakes of others
Ch 9. 1.Define Hazardous energy.
Stored potential energy that will cause harm is suddenly released.
Ch 9. 2.List four ways to categorize the status of hazardous energy.
- 1. Stable - not likely to change
- 2. Stable - may change
- 3. Unstable - may require attention
- 4. Unstable - requires immediate attention
Ch 9. 3.List common electrical equipment and its associated hazards.
- Powerlines/Wires: arc danger, voltage?, may jump recoil
- Pole-Mounted Transformers: hard to extinguish, drip oil
- Pad-Mounted Transformers: energize surface, arc
- Ground level Vaults: confined space, o2, explosive
- Subterranean Vaults: water, ventilate,
- Generators: heat, fuel, automatic start up
- Batteries: stored energy, chemical, gas buildup
- Disconnects/switches/meters: exposed terminals
Ch 9. 4. What is ground gradient?
Is electrical energy that has established a path to ground through the earth and is energizing it. A downed power line may be energizing the earth in a concentric ring of up to 30 feet depending on the voltage source.
Ch 9. 5.Why are UPS battery rooms hazardous?
The direct current (DC) can energize pooled water, battery acid, and battery rack hardware.
Ch 9. 6.List the chemical properties of common utility gases.
- Propane: C3H8, vapor density 1.5, bp = -44F, ignition temp 871F, UEL 9.5, LEL 2.4
- Natural Gas: CH4, vapor density .55, bp = -259F, ignition temp = 999F, UEL 14.0, LEL 5.3
Ch 9. 7.List the hazards associated with utility water and storm sewer systems.
Uncontrolled water flow can cause initial and secondary structure collapse. The ISO should investigate water flows on scene.
Ch 9. 8.Give examples of mechanical hazardous energy
Sudden release of mechanical systems caused by heat, trauma, or overloading. Pulleys, cables, counterweights, springs. Freestanding truss structures.
Ch 9. 9.What are some of the hazardous energy sources in vehicles?
Stability/position, Fuel systems, electrical systems, power generation systems, suspension/ door systems, drive brake systems, restraint safety systems
Ch 9. 10.What are the four considerations that need to be evaluated when considering weather as a hazardous energy.
- Potential for Change/Storms
Ch 9. 11.List some warning signs that extreme weather is approaching.
Watch the sky, Note 180 degree changes in wind direction, potential for flash flood, thunderstorms can produce rapid change, lightning flashes to define cloud formations that may be tornadic, distance between you and lightning, deep snow
Ch 9. 12.List several sources of miscellaneous hazardous energy.
Earthen materials, ice, flowing water, animal movement
Ch 10. 1.List the three factors that lead to overexertion
Ergonomics, physicology, and rehab efforts
Ch 10. 2.What are the three ergonomic factors that can produce injury?
The physical EnvironmentThe Relationship of the WorkerThe Task
Ch 10. 3.What are the three As to help mitigate ergonomic hazards.
Ch 10. 4.List the three factors that impact human cell performance.
- Thermal stress
- Hydration Fuel
Ch 10. 5.Discuss two types of thermal stress
- Heat Stress: clothing reduces bodies ability to evaporate heat
- Cold Stress: body's core temperature cannot be maintained
Ch 10. 6.List three examples of passive cooling and two methods of active cooling.
- Hypothermia: Can range from mild to severe. Mild cases are marked by shivering and loss of coordination. Lethargy and coma can onset quickly
- Frostbite: A serious local injury meaning that a body part is frozen
- Frostnip: A local injury. Most people do not realize they have frostnip, it is, however, a presursor to frostbite
Ch 10. 7.At minimum, how much water should working firefighters drink at an incident?
One quart per hour during periods of work
Ch 10. 8.What four elements need to be balanced to help human cell performance?
oxygen, water, glucose, insulin
Ch 10. 9.When feeding firefighters, food should be geared toward what balance?
- low glycemic
- dietary fat
Ch 10. 10.How often should firefighters eat when incident activities require significant effort over a long period of time?
- Feed now
- Feed every two to three hours
Ch 10. 11.Define the for Rs of firefighter rehabilitation
A trained overhead IMS team with specific expertise and organized to deploy to incidents for management functions that exceed those available at the local level
Incident Management Team (IMT)
The center responsible for the ongoing development and refinement of various NIMS activities and programs
NIMS integration center (NIC)
The basic approach of an ISO to help firefighters work more safely.
Work safe triggers
Wearing a highly visible safety vestSetting a good example, self-discipline etc.Peer talk
- Soft intervention: let people know of dangerous situation on scene
- Firm intervention: immediately stop operations to protect personnel
3 ISO Traps:
- The Bunker Cop syndrome: spends too much time looking for missing, damaged, or inapproprate use of PPE...focusing on asmall part of the scene instead of big picture can be bad.
- The CYA Mode: Citing rules and regulations in order to keep people out of danger or the ISO not held liable...instead of showing genuine concern for the personnel safety
- The Worker: Pitching in to help crews do tasks and losing ability to stay mobile and observant to the scene
Who is ultimately responsible for scene safety?
What are the two primary communications tools the ISO uses?
As a rule, how often should the ISO communicate with the IC at routine incidents?
Face to Face communication every 15 minutes
Proposed NIMS incident typing schem for incident management teams
- Type 5; Local, agency, or jurisidiction specific
- Type 4: Multiagency or jurisdictional(automatic/mutual aid)
- Type 3: Regional
- Type 2: State
- Type 1: National
Define how the ISO organizational structure can expand for local-level incidents
The ISO can ask the IC to create an Assistant Safety Officer (ASO) position
Define how the ISO organizational structure can expand for large scale incidents
Instead of having 25 ASOs reporting to the safety officer, have one ASO take messages from the other ASOs and give the report the ISO.
A template that outlines a mental or physical process to be followed