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  1. what is the most important part of urinalysis
    specimen hangling
  2. macroscopic
    =gross + chemical exam
  3. microscopic
    look at specimen
  4. parts of urinalysis
    • gross exam
    • chemical exam
    • sediment exam
  5. gross exam
    • color
    • odor
    • clarity
    • specific gravity
  6. chemical exam
    • dip stick
    • 8-11 test
  7. sediment exam
    microscopic exam
  8. flockulant
    snow globe
  9. SG
    • density
    • one of the most important
  10. macroscopic vs microscopic exam
    if the macroscopic (dipstick,SG,ect) examination of urine from healthy animal is normal, the microscopic examination (sediment) is also likely to be normal
  11. what should the macroscopic exam always be part of
  12. what should be done for every min data base (MDB) in every surgery
    macroscopic urinalysis and PCV/TS
  13. what is TS
    albumin + globulins
  14. do we do microscopic exam if macroscopic exam is normal
  15. GFR
    • glomeruler filtration rate
    • measure of blood flow through the kidneys
    • the more blood pushed through the more toxin are flushed out
  16. urine production
    • filtration
    • reabsorption
    • secretion
  17. filtration
    in glomerulus of renal nephron
  18. reabsortion
    in renal tubule
  19. secretion
    in renal tubule
  20. major functions of kidneys
    • control water loss
    • absorbtion
    • pH balance
    • excrete toxin
  21. what should not make it through the glomerulous
    RBC, WBC, and albumin because they are too big
  22. what can damage cause in the glomerulous
    • cause filter holes to get smaller or bigger
    • when biger albumin can pass thru
  23. what are the 2 important things about the function of the kidney
    • filter size
    • kidney ability to concentrate urine
  24. 1st and 2nd urine
    • 1st urine formed is very dilute SG of 1.008-1.012
    • 2nd reabsorbtion of electrolytes, glucose, amino acid, and stuff body needs to filter down
  25. what gets thru the glomerulous
    it has filters what are little holes that allow protein, water, glucose, and toxin to get thru
  26. what should you look for what will show change before bloodwork
    • urine SG
    • presense of protein in urine
  27. what is microalbuminurine
    presense of low level of albumin in urine
  28. what is the first sign of kidney disease
    loss of the ability to concentrate urine
  29. what won't change until 2/3 of kidneys are damaged
    BUN and CREA
  30. whos urine is more concentrated cats or dogs
  31. what should the kidneys do if you are dehydrated
    should pull water out
  32. how would you know the kidneys are not working
    your dehydrated and urine is dilute
  33. ADH
    • anti-diuretic hormone
    • makes kidneys hold water
    • steriods alcohol and caffine block this so they urinate a lot
  34. diuresis
    flush out kidneys/toxin by giving patients lots of fluids
  35. urine samples are affected by
    • collection method
    • sample collection timing
    • storage techniques/changes over time
    • must evalute results based on above info
  36. what can give you false results in urine
    improper handling
  37. randomly obtained urine samples
    • -ok for general screening
    • -more likely to be dilute due to h2o intake
  38. early morning (fasting) samples
    • best to evalute tubular functions
    • likely to have concentrated urine
    • sample tend to be acidic (preserves proteinaceous structures)
  39. what happens if 1st a.m urine is dilute
    that means theres a problem, want it to be concentrated
  40. what does alkalyn urine so to there cells
    breaks them down
  41. post prandial samples
    • after eating
    • 3-6 hours
    • good to evaluate effectiveness of diet on pH, crystalluri, gloucosuria, etc.
  42. collection methods
    • free catch
    • manual expression of bladder
    • urethral catherization
    • cystocentesis
    • method affects interpratation
  43. which collection method gives us the best sample
  44. free catch
    • prefer first sample in a.m
    • midstream best
    • in clean dry container
    • in clinic may wash area first
  45. what is free catch commonly used on
    pets PU/PD, heraturia
  46. why is it best to collect 1st am sample for free catch
    because concentrated and acidic
  47. why do you want 2 containers for free catch
    • 1st- will have stuff from vaginal area/distal urethra
    • 2nd- collects midstream
  48. how would you get urine for a dog doing a free catch
    cup with or without stick
  49. how would you get urine for a cat doing a free catch
    platic liner or beads in litter box
  50. how would you get urine for a cow doing a free catch
    rub ventral to vulva
  51. how would you get urine for a horse doing a free catch
    • whistle
    • place in clean stall
    • rub warm moist cloth on belly
  52. express bladder
    • in clinic with relaxed animal
    • clean external genitalia
    • gently compress posterior abdomen with fingers
    • done rectally in large animals
    • usually don't do
  53. catheterization
    • technique varies with species and sex
    • requires sedation
    • need sterile catheter and lube
    • often creates contamination
    • collect in sterile container
  54. what do you usually disregard with catheterization
    the 1st few cc's of sample because catheter can cause damage to urethra and rthe 1st part of sample will have RBC in it
  55. cystocentesis
    • preferred for sterile sample
    • aseptically prepare adbomen
  56. how should a bladder be for a cystocentesis
    bladder must be 1/2 full and plapable
  57. what size needle should you use for cystocentesis
    • 1-1.5 inch needle
    • never use needle over 22G
  58. how should you enter the bladder doing a cystocentesis
    at an angle
Card Set:
2013-09-04 22:54:51

first half of packet
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