Psych Abnormal Behavior/Mental Disorders

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Trekofstarsx
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232916
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Psych Abnormal Behavior/Mental Disorders
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2013-09-05 03:56:48
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Psych Abnormal Behavior Mental Disorders
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Psych Abnormal Behavior/Mental Disorders
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  1. Personality Disorder
    A maladaptive, inflexible way of dealing with the environment and other people
  2. Abnormal Behavior
    Any act that leads to distress, disability, or increased risk of death or pain
  3. Biopsychosocial Model
    Emphasizes three aspects of abnormal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological
  4. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
    Sets specific criteria for each psychological diagnosis
  5. GAD
    Have frequent and exaggerated worries

    Many people with depression also have GAD
  6. Panic Disorder
    Characterized by frequent occasions of anxiety and occasional attacks of panic

    Several studies have indicated a genetic contribution, although no gene has been pinpointed
  7. Hyperventilation
    Rapid deep breathing

    Makes the body react as if it were suffocating, thereby triggering other responses such as sweating and increased heart rate
  8. Agoraphobia
    Fear of open or public places

    People afraid of their own anxiety (having a panic attack in public)
  9. Phobia
    A fear that interferes with normal living

    Most people that have a phobia are not afraid of the object themselves, but of their own reactions
  10. Systematic Desensitization
    A method of reducing fear by gradually exposing people to the object of their fear
  11. OCD

    Obsession
    Compulsion
    Repetitive, unwelcome stream of thought, such as worrying about doing something shameful

    Repetitive, almost irresistible action

    Obsessions generally lead to compulsions (itching sensation leads to scratching)
  12. Exposure therapy with response prevention
    Used to treat OCD
  13. Major Depression
    Person experiences little interest, pleasure, or motivation for weeks at a time
  14. Seasonal affective disorder
    People become depressed during a particular season of the year

    The most effective treatment is exposure to a bright light for a few hours a day
  15. Bipolar Disorder
    Transitions between manic and depressed state
  16. Tricyclic Drugs
    Interfere with the axon's ability to reabsorb neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin after releasing them

    Prolong the effects of these neurotransmitters at the synapses
  17. SSRIS
    Block the reuptake of only seratonin
  18. MAOIs
    Block the metabolic breakdown of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin by the enzyme monoamine oxidase.

    Therefore, MAOIs increase the effectiveness of these neurotransmitters
  19. BNDF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor)
    Increased by use of antidepressants over long periods of time

    Leads to birth of new neurons in the hippocampus, extended dendrites of cells already there, and improved learning
  20. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
    A brief electrical shock is administered across the patient's head to induce a convulsion similar to epilepsy
  21. Schizophrenia
    To be diagnosed with schizophrenia, someone must exhibit a deterioration of daily activities such as work, social, relations, and self-care, and some combination of the following: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and thought, or movement disorder
  22. Delusions

    1) Delusion of persecution
    2) Delusion of grandeur
    3) Delusion of reference
    Beliefs that are strongly held despite a lack of evidence for them

    • 1) A belief that enemies are persecuting you
    • 2) A belief that you are unusually important, perhaps a special messenger from God
    • 3) A tendency to take all sorts of messages personally
  23. Prominent Schizophrenia
    People with prominent hallucinations and delusions
  24. Copy number variants
    Deletions and duplications of tiny parts of a chromosome

    15% of people with schizophrenia have these
  25. Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis
    Schizophrenia originates with nervous system impairments that develop before birth or early in childhood because of either genetics of early environment, especially prenatal environment
  26. Season-of-birth effect
    Person born in the winter or early spring is slightly more likely to develop schizophrenia than a person born at other times
  27. Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia
    The idea that the underlying cause of schizophrenia is excessive types of dopamine synapses
  28. Tardive Dyskinesia
    A condition characterized by tremors and involuntary movements

    (side effect of antipsychotic drugs)

    (as a result of antipsychotic drugs blocking dopamine synapses, which control movement)
  29. Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs
    Relieve schizophrenia without causing tardive dyskinesia
  30. Main symptoms of autism
    • Impaired social relationships
    • Impaired communication
    • Stereotyped behaviors

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