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Imitation of Christ
A Christian devotional book by Thomas à Kempis, perhaps the most widely read devotional work next to the Bible.
The native language spoken by the common people. The printing of the Bible in the vernacular helped lead to the Reformation by giving the masses an opportunity to read the Scriptures for themselves.
A reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services. Its use was adopted by the western church in the Carolingian Era as a benefit bestowed by the crown or church officials.
Justification by Faith Alone
Is a Christian theological doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, and some in the Restoration Movement. Asserts God's pardon for guilty sinners is granted to and received through faith, conceived as excluding all "works," alone.
Luther's View on Good Works
Luther taught that salvation is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin and subsequently hell.
Originally intended as forgiveness for temporal punishment for sins, would later be abused by being marketed as a "get out of hell free card" to earn money for the Church.
Was a Catholic German Dominican preacher known for selling indulgences. The accusation that he had sold full forgiveness for sins not yet committed, caused a great scandal. It was believed that all of the money that Tetzel raised was for the ongoing reconstruction of St. Peter's Basilica.
Was written by Martin Luther in 1517 and is widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences.
Best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation. Several German princes abandoned the Catholic Church and formed the Schmalkaldic League in order to challenge Charles' authority with military force. Unwilling to allow the same religious wars to come to his other domains, Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation.
Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
Is the first of three tracts written by Martin Luther in 1520. In this work, he defined for the first time the signature doctrines of the Priesthood of all believers and the two kingdoms. The work was written in the vernacular language German and not in Latin.
Babylonian Captivity of the Church
Also known as the Avignon Papacy, was the period from 1309 to 1378, during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon France, rather than in Rome. This situation arose from the conflict between the Papacy and the French crown.
Freedom of a Christian
The third of Martin Luther’s major reforming treatises of 1520. This work was written in German and developed the concept that as fully forgiven children of God, Christians are no longer compelled to keep God's law; however, they freely and willingly serve God and their neighbors.
Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or (as in the case of the Catholic Church) to restrict certain rights within it.
Diet of Worms
The Diet of Worms 1521 was an imperial diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in Worms, Germany. It is most memorable for the Edict of Worms, which addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.
The Peasants' Revolt
he Peasants' Revolt, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the economic and political tensions generated by the Black Death in the 1340s, the high taxes resulting from the conflict with France during the Hundred Years War, and instability within the local leadership of London.
A canton is a type of administrative division of a country. In general, cantons are relatively small in terms of area and population when compared to other administrative divisions such as counties, departments or provinces.
Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly centre of humanism. He continued his studies while he served as a pastor in Glarus and later in Einsiedeln, where he was influenced by the writings of Erasmus.
Anabaptists are Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, considered Protestant by some, although some consider Anabaptism to be a distinct movement from Protestantism.
John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism.
In the first half of the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation reached the city, causing religious strife during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Geneva flirted with joining the Swiss Federation.
Institutes of a Christian Religion
The Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin's seminal work of Protestant systematic theology. The book was written as an introductory textbook on the Protestant faith for those with some previous knowledge of theology and covered a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty.
Diet of Augsburg
The Diet of Augsburg were the meetings of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire in the German city of Augsburg.
Problems between Zwingli and Luther
Zwingli believed, based on logic and human reason, that a human body could not be present in more than one place; Luther challenged him to take Christ at his word. If Jesus said he was physically present, then logic and human reason should be forced to correspond to the everlasting words of Christ – not the other way around. In Luther’s eyes, Zwingli was seeking to modify the natural reading of Christ’s words in order to make it compatible with human reason.
Peace of Augsburg
also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes in 1555 at Augsburg.
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. When Henry VIII became king of England in 1509, Wolsey became the King's almoner. Wolsey's affairs prospered, and was the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state and extremely powerful within the Church.
Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and his own establishment as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
Sir Thomas More
was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist. He was an important councillor to Henry VIII of England and Lord Chancellor. Opposed the Protestant Reformation, in particular the theology of Martin Luther and William Tyndale, whose books he burned and followers he persecuted.
Catherine of Aragon
daughter of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, and was Queen of England from 1509 until 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII.
Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII. Made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the start of the English Reformation.
a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. During Cranmer's tenure as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was responsible for establishing the first doctrinal and liturgical structures of the reformed Church of England.
Act of Supremacy
a piece of legislation that granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy, which means that he was declared the supreme head of the Church of England.
Book of Common Prayer
published in 1549, in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome. Prayer books, unlike books of prayers, contain the words of structured services of worship.
Leviticus 18:16 & 20:21
- -Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother's wife it is thy brother's nakedness.
- -And if a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an unclean thing he hath uncovered his brother's nakedness; they shall be childless.
Other Wives of Henry VIII
- Jane Seymour (died days after giving birth, widely believed to be following birth complications);
- Anne of Cleves (marriage annulled);
- Catherine Howard (executed);
- Catherine Parr (widowed).
The Council of Trent
was an Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. It convened in Trento, Italy, then the capital of the Prince-Bishopric of Trent of the Holy Roman Empire.
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