Water Quality and GW Contamination

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Water Quality and GW Contamination
2013-09-04 21:30:53

Water Quality and GW Contamination terms
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  1. Adsorption
    The attraction or adhesion of ions or molecules in solution onto the surface of a solid.
  2. Advection
    The process by which solutes are transported by flowing groundwater.
  3. Diffusion
    the process of movement of solutes from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentrations.
  4. Dispersion
    The spreading or mixing of a solute in ground water because water containg the solute is traveling at a different velocity than the groundwater. The result is a dilution of the solute at the advancing edge of the flow.
  5. Effluent
    Liquid waste discharged to the environment from a treatment or manufacturing facility. It could be untreated, partially treated, or completely treated.
  6. Equivalent Weight
    The formula atomic weight of a dissolved ionic species divided by the electrical charge
  7. Hardness
    A property of water in which evaporation produces a scale and in combination with soap produces an insoluble residue. Hardness is cause principally by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions although other ions may also be present like iron or manganese.
  8. Hardpan
    A hard, impervious near-surface soil layer, usually in clayey soils, formed by cementation from the precipitation of insoluble materials such as silica, iron oxide, calcium carbonate, and organic matter.
  9. Infiltration
    The downward flow of water from the surface into and through soils and porous rock.
  10. Leachate
    Water that has percolated through solid waste and has accumulated a high amount of dissolved solids.
  11. Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
    The maximum level of contaminants permitted in water which enters the distribution system of a public water system. MCLs are enforceable standards and are based on health risks.
  12. Milliequivalent per Liter
    A measure of the chemical equivalence of the concentration of all soluted present in solution. The units are obtained by dividing the concentration (in mg/L) by the equivalent weight.
  13. Part per billion (ppb)
    A measure of the solute concentration in a solution that represents mass of the solute per total mass of the solution x10-9. One ppb is equivalent to 1 microgram (10-6 grams) of solute per liter (mcg/L)
  14. Part per Million (ppm)
    A measure of the solute concentration in a solution that represents mass of the solute per total mass of the solution x10-6. One ppm has1 gram of substance for every million grams of solution. Because the density of water is 1 gram per mL, and there is a very small amount of solute, the density of a solute at this low concentration is approximately 1 gram per mL. Therefore, the density of a 1 ppm solution is approximate to 1 milligram per liter (mg/L)
  15. PicoCuries per Litet (pCi/L)
    A unit of radioactive decay rate; the quantity of radioactive material producing 2.22 nuclear transformations per minute.
  16. Reference Dose
    A scientific estimate of a daily exposure level that is not expected to cause adverse health effects in humans
  17. Retardation
    The reduction of overall solute flow relative to the groundwater due to adsorption
  18. Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels
    The maximum levels of constituents of water at the point of delivery to the consumer that affect the taste, odor or appearance of drinking water. Federal standards are nonenforceable.
  19. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR)
    The ratio of sodium to calcium that indicates how much calcium in the soil has been replaced by sodium
  20. Sorption
    Processes that act to remove solutes from groundwater.
  21. Tracers
    Elements or compounds used to determine the flow direction or course of the groundwater. Tracers must be detectable at low concentrations and must not react with the aquifer materials or groundwater.
  22. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
    The total amount of minerals dissolved in water; the sum of the chemical constituents in mg/L for water that contains more than 1000 mg/L dissolved minerals.