Micro test #1.txt

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justjay18xx
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232959
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Micro test #1.txt
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2013-09-05 21:50:58
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micro test#1
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  1. cellulases
    Enzymes, called cellulases, from Trichoderma fungus are used to digest some of the cellulose in the cotton, thereby softening it and giving the stone-washed appearance
  2. enzymes
    are proteins, so they are readily degraded for removal from wastewater
  3. Gluconacetobacter
    bacteria make cellulose by attaching glucose units to simple chains in the outer membrane of the bacterial cell wall. The cellulose microfibrils are extruded through pores in the outer
  4. The system of nomenclature
    (naming) for organisms in use today was established in 1735 by Carolus Linnaeus
  5. States of matter
    Solid, liquid, gas, you have to have atp to go from one state to the other
  6. Solids
    Form of matter that has definite shape and definite volume
  7. Liquids
    Form of matter that has indefinite shape and definite volume
  8. Gas
    a form of matter that has indefinite shape and indefinite volume
  9. Electrons
    Have a negative charge
  10. Protons
    Have a positive charge
  11. Neutron
    No charge to make it easier (neutral)
  12. Atomic number
    Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, making up that element
  13. Mass number
    The mass number then refers to the number of neutrons and protons in the neuclus of that element
  14. Carbon
    6 number of protons which would be the atomic number.

    12.011 would be the mass number
  15. Nuetrons
    Neutrons may differ from the atoms
  16. Hydrogen
    • Number of protons equals. 1
    • Mass number equals 10079
  17. Oxygen
    • 8 number of protons atomic number
    • Mass number equals 15.9994
  18. Nitrogen
    • Atomic number equals 7 protons
    • Mass number equals 14.0067
  19. Covalent bonds
    is a bond formed due to the sharing of electrons between two atoms
  20. Ionic bonds
    a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion
  21. PH
    Is the measure of the hydrogen ion concentration
  22. Ph scale
    Towards 0 it is acidic towards 7 it is neutral and towards 14 it is known as basic or alkine

    0 would be hydrogen and 14 would be hydroxide
  23. Diffusion
    is the movement of molecules from a higher concentration
  24. Osmosis
    The movement of water molecules from an area of higher water concentration, to an area of lesser concentration through a selective permemable membrane
  25. Disaccharide
    Any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues
  26. condensation reaction
    is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties (functional groups) combine to form a larger molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule.[1] Possible small molecules lost are water, hydrogen chloride, methanol, or acetic acid.
  27. Glycogen
    A substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates; a polysaccharide that yields glucose on hydrolysis
  28. hydrolysis
    The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water
  29. Cellulose
    • An insoluble substance that is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers such as cotton. It is a polysaccharide...
    • Paint or lacquer consisting principally of cellulose acetate or nitrate in solution
  30. Chiton
    Any of various marine mollusks of the class Polyplacophora that live on rocks and have shells consisting of eight overlapping calcareous plates. Also called sea cradle.
  31. Lipids
    any of various substances that are soluble in nonpolar organic solvents (as chloroform and ether), that are usually insoluble in water, that with proteins and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of living cells, and that include fats, waxes, phosphatides, cerebrosides, and related and derived compounds
  32. insoluble
    (of a substance) Incapable of being dissolved
  33. Fatty acid
    A carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, esp. any of those occurring as esters in fats and oils
  34. unsaturated fatty acid:
    a fatty acid whose carbon chain can absorb additional hydrogen atoms
  35. saturated fatty acid:
    a fatty acid whose carbon chain cannot absorb any more hydrogen atoms; found chiefly in animal fats
  36. Protiens
    • Structural protien
    • 20 amino acids

    any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, esp. as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies.
  37. A peptide bond (amide bond)
    is a covalent chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, causing the release of a molecule of water (H2O), hence the process is a dehydration synthesis reaction (also known as a condensation reaction), and usually occurs between amino acids. The resulting C(O)NH bond is called a peptide bond, and the resulting molecule is an amide.
  38. nucleic acid
    A complex organic substance present in living cells, esp. DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain
  39. RNA
    any of various nucleic acids that contain ribose and uracil as structural components and are associated with the control of cellular chemical activities
  40. DNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is...
    • The fundamental and distinctive characteristics of someone or somthing, esp. when regarded as unchangeable
  41. Protozoa
    Eukaryotic single or unicellular pseudopod, flagella, cilla
  42. Virus
    • Acellular no cellular genetic information protien cover cupsid
    • Protien coat
    • Cannot reproduce on their own
  43. Metazoa
    • Multicellular animal parasites not strictly microorganisms
    • Flatworms and round worms
    • During some of their lifecycle they are microscopic in size
  44. Algae
    Photosynthetic eukaryotes

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