carbon carbon double bond, so we say this is the functional group
In alkenes, if the double bond might be in more than one position, what happens??
the chain is numbered and the lower number of the two double-bonded carbosn is added to the name to indicate the position of the double bonds
Carbod-carbon double bonds cannot __, and many alkenes show __.
__ are also common. Unless the rings are very large, __ are always the __ isomers, adn the term __ is omitted from the names. In a large ring, a __ may occur.
hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon triple bonds as their funcitonal group
names generally end in -yne suffix, although some don't
triple bond is linear, so no geometric isomerism
In an alkyne, what must occur.
four atoms must be in a straight line; these four collinear atoms are not easily bent into a ring, so cycloalkynes are rare and only stable if the ring is large, containing eight or more carbon atoms
__ are derivatives of benzene, represented by a __. This bonding arrangement is particularly __.
aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes)
6-membered ring with 3 double bonds
Many organic compounds contain oxygen atoms bonded to __ groups. The major classes of oxygen-containing compounds are __ (6).
Alcohols def formula
organic compounds that contain the hydroxyl group as their funcitonal group
Alcohols are among the most __ because the __ is strongly __ and can participate in __.
polar organic compounds
Names of alcohols end in the __ suffix from the word alcohol.
composed of two alkyl groups bonded to an oxygen atom
R--O--R' (R prime)
Like alcohols, ethers are much more __ than __, but they have no __, so they cannot __ with themelves.
Ethers do not form __ with ___ such as alcohols, amines, and water, enhancing their __ with these compounds.
Ether names are often formed from the names of the __ and the word __.
functional group for both aldehydes and ketone
to alkyl groups bondedto the carbonyl group
one alkyl group and a hydrogen atom bonded to the carbonyl group
suffix: -al or -aldehyde
The carbonyl group is strongly __, and it can form __ with __ such as water, alcohols, and amines. __ and __ containing up to __ carbon atoms are __ with water.
contain the carboxyl group, --COOH, as their functional group
is a combo of a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, but this combo has different properties from those of ketones and alcohols
Carboxylic acids owe their acidity to the __ formed by __.
resonance-stabilized carboxylate anions
Systematic names for carboxylic acids use the __ suffix, but historical names are commonly used.
Carboxylic acids are strongly __, like ketones, aldehydes, and alcohols. They are relatively __ in water.
Carboxylic acids are easily converted to a variety of __, each of which contains the __ bonded to an oxygen or other __. Among these functional groups are __, __, and __, all of which can be converted back to __ by __.
__ is another element often found in the functional groups of organic compounds. The most common __ organic compounds are __, __, and __.
alkylated derivatives of ammonia
Becuase of their __, naturally occurring amines are oftenc alled ___. Simple amines are named by naming the __ bonded to nitrogen adn adding the word "amine". The
acid derivatives that result from a combo of an acid with ammonia or an amine.
True or False:
Proteins have the structure of long-chain, complex amides
Amides are among the most __.
stable acid derivatives
The nitrogen atom of an amide is not as __ as the nitrogen of an amine because of the __ of the __ group.
Amides form particularly strong __, giving them __ and __. The strongly __ forms unusually strong hydrogen bonds with the __ that carries a partia __ int eh __ form (shown above).
high MP and BP
polarized amide N-H hydrogen
compound containing the cyano group -C (Triple bond) N
The cyano group is __ by virtue of the __, and most smll nitriles are somewhat __ in water.