Orgo txt. 2.12-2.14

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Orgo txt. 2.12-2.14
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2013-09-05 08:00:33
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CHM 201
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  1. We divide organic compounds into three classes
    • hydrocarbons
    • compounds containing oxygen
    • compounds containing nitrogen
  2. Alkanes
    • hydrocarbons with only single bonds
    • usually end in -ane and hte first part of their name indicates the number of carbons
  3. The __ are a special class of alkanes in the form of a ring.
    cycloalkanes
  4. Alkanes are hte major components of what (name three)?
    heating gases, gasoline, jet fuel, etc.
  5. Other than __, __ undergo few reactions. It is relatively unreactive. They undergo few because they have no __, the part of the molecuel where reactions usually occur.
    • combustion
    • alkanes
    • functional group
  6. What are functional gorups
    distinct chemical units, such as double bonds, hydroxyl groups, or halogen atoms, that are reactive. Most organic compounds are characterized and classified by their functional groups
  7. An __ is an alkane portion of a molecule, with what difference?
    • alkyl group
    • one hydrogen atom removed to allow bonding to the rest of the molecule
  8. What symbol can we use with an alkane group?
    R
  9. Alkenes
    • hydrocarbons taht contain carbon-carbon double bonds
    • end in -ene
  10. Most reactive part of alkene
    carbon carbon double bond, so we say this is the functional group
  11. In alkenes, if the double bond might be in more than one position, what happens??
    the chain is numbered and the lower number of the two double-bonded carbosn is added to the name to indicate the position of the double bonds
  12. Carbod-carbon double bonds cannot __, and many alkenes show __.
    • rotate
    • geometric isomerism
  13. __ are also common. Unless the rings are very large, __ are always the __ isomers, adn the term __ is omitted from the names. In a large ring, a __ may occur.
    • cycloalkenes x2
    • cis
    • cis
    • trans
  14. Alkynes
    • hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon triple bonds as their funcitonal group
    • names generally end in -yne suffix, although some don't 
    • triple bond is linear, so no geometric isomerism
  15. In an alkyne, what must occur.
    four atoms must be in a straight line; these four collinear atoms are not easily bent into a ring, so cycloalkynes are rare and only stable if the ring is large, containing eight or more carbon atoms
  16. __ are derivatives of benzene, represented by a __. This bonding arrangement is particularly __.
    • aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes)
    • 6-membered ring with 3 double bonds
    • stable
  17. Many organic compounds contain oxygen atoms bonded to __ groups. The major classes of oxygen-containing compounds are __ (6).
    • alkyl groups
    • alcohols
    • ethers
    • ketones
    • aldehydes
    • carboxylic acids
    • acid derivatives
  18. Alcohols
    def
    formula
    • organic compounds that contain the hydroxyl group as their funcitonal group
    • R--OH
  19. Alcohols are among the most __ because the __ is strongly __ and can participate in __.
    • polar organic compounds
    • hydroxyl group
    • polar
    • hydrogen bonding
  20. Names of alcohols end in the __ suffix from the word alcohol.
    ol
  21. Ethers
    • composed of two alkyl groups bonded to an oxygen atom
    • R--O--R' (R prime)
  22. Like alcohols, ethers are much more __ than __, but they have no __, so they cannot __ with themelves.
    • polar
    • hydrocarbons
    • OH hydrogens
    • hydrogen bond
  23. Ethers do not form __ with ___ such as alcohols, amines, and water, enhancing their __ with these compounds.
    • hydrogen bonds
    • hydrogen-bond donors
    • solubility
  24. Ether names are often formed from the names of the __ and the word __.
    • alkyl groups
    • ether
  25. carbonyl group
    • C=O
    • functional group for both aldehydes and ketone
    • s
  26. ketone
    • to alkyl groups bondedto the carbonyl group
    • suffix -one
  27. aldehyde
    • one alkyl group and a hydrogen atom bonded to the carbonyl group
    • suffix: -al or -aldehyde
  28. The carbonyl group is strongly __, and it can form __ with __ such as water, alcohols, and amines. __ and __ containing up to __ carbon atoms are __ with water.
    • polar
    • hydrogen bonds
    • hydrogen-bond donors
    • aldehydes
    • ketones
    • 4
    • miscible
  29. Carboxylic acids
    • contain the carboxyl group, --COOH, as their functional group
    • formula: R--COOH
    • is a combo of a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, but this combo has different properties from those of ketones and alcohols
  30. Carboxylic acids owe their acidity to the __ formed by __.
    • resonance-stabilized carboxylate anions
    • deprotonation
  31. Systematic names for carboxylic acids use the __ suffix, but historical names are commonly used.
    oic acid
  32. Carboxylic acids are strongly __, like ketones, aldehydes, and alcohols. They are relatively __ in water.
    • polar
    • soluble
  33. Carboxylic acids are easily converted to a variety of __, each of which contains the __ bonded to an oxygen or other __. Among these functional groups are __, __, and __, all of which can be converted back to __ by __.
    • acid derivatives
    • carbonyl group
    • electron-withdrawign element
    • acid chlorides
    • esters
    • amides
    • carboxylic acids
    • acidic 
    • basic hydrolysis
  34. __ is another element often found in the functional groups of organic compounds. The most common __ organic compounds are __, __, and __.
    • nitrogen
    • nitrogenous
    • amines
    • amides
    • nitriles
  35. Amines
    alkylated derivatives of ammonia
  36. Becuase of their __, naturally occurring amines are oftenc alled ___. Simple amines are named by naming the __ bonded to nitrogen adn adding the word "amine". The
    • basicity
    • alkaloids
    • alkyl groups
  37. Amides
    acid derivatives that result from a combo of an acid with ammonia or an amine.
  38. True or False:
    Proteins have the structure of long-chain, complex amides
    True
  39. Amides are among the most __.
    stable acid derivatives
  40. The nitrogen atom of an amide is not as __ as the nitrogen of an amine because of the __ of the __ group.
    • basic
    • electron-withdrawing effect
    • carbonyl group
  41. Amides form particularly strong __, giving them __ and __. The strongly __ forms unusually strong hydrogen bonds with the __ that carries a partia __ int eh __ form (shown above).
    • hydrogen bonds
    • high MP and BP
    • polarized amide N-H hydrogen
    • carbonyl oxygen
    • negative charge
    • polarized resonance
  42. nitrile
    compound containing the cyano group -C (Triple bond) N
  43. The cyano group is __ by virtue of the __, and most smll nitriles are somewhat __ in water.
    • strongly polar
    • C triple bond N bond
    • soluble

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