Virology Part 1 structure and spread

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Author:
heather.dundas
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232995
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Virology Part 1 structure and spread
Updated:
2013-09-05 21:33:46
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VTI
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  1. What 3 structures are viruses made out of? NCE
    • nucleic acid
    • capsid
    • +/- envelope
  2. Can a virus be made of both DNA and RNA?
    NO! It has to be one or the other. Never both.
  3. What is the protein shell/coat?
    the capsid
  4. What is the envelope made of?
    a monolayer of lipids
  5. What is a non-enveloped virus called?
    naked
  6. Viruses are obligate _ parasites.
    intracellular
  7. Viruses depend on _ _ _ _ for their reproduction and are NOT free living.
    the host cell metabolism
  8. List several vectors for viruses used in science: MTE
    • mice
    • tissue culture
    • embryonated chicken egg
  9. What are the 3 variations in size?
    • Large
    • Small
    • Prion
  10. What is an example for a large virus?
    poxvirus
  11. What is a example of a small virus?
    parvovirus
  12. What are prions?
    "virus like" proteins
  13. Do prions have nucleic acids?
    no they are only "virus like"
  14. What do prions typically form?
    spongiformes
  15. What type of diseases do prions cause? Name an example.
    • neurologic
    • mad cow disease
  16. How are prions spread?
    ingestion
  17. What 3 things are viruses classified on? SCE
    • shape(as seen on an electron microscope)
    • composition(of nucleic acid core/genome)
    • Envelope(+/)

  18. Name that shape
    helical

  19. Name that shape
    isohedral

  20. Name that shape
    bacteriophage
  21. How is the envelope produced?
    by "budding" through the host cell membranes
  22. What is on the surface of an envelope?
    glycoproteins
  23. What are the 3 uses of the glycoproteins on the surface of an envelope? IFA
    • ID and bind to receptors of the host's membrane
    • Fuse to host cell membrane
    • Allow capsid and genome to enter and cause infection inside of host
  24. List 3 enveloped viruses: IHR
    • influenza¬†
    • herpes
    • rabies
  25. Why do enveloped viruses cause persistant infections?
    they can adapt and change
  26. Are enveloped viruses easy to kill?
    yes
  27. How can you tell that a virus is naked?
    • no shell
    • more refractory
  28. Are naked viruses easy to kill?
    no
  29. Name two ways to kill naked viruses:SV
    • steam sterilization
    • viricidal compounds
  30. What settings is the autoclave at to kill naked viruses?temp,psi,time
    • 121C
    • 15psi
    • 30min
  31. What are the 4 stages of replication?A,P/U,R/S,A/R
    • attachment
    • penetration/uncoating
    • replication/synthesis
    • assembly/release
  32. Name the step: Virus binds to cell
    attachment
  33. Name 3 common methods of entry: RUG
    Which is the top way?**
    • Respiratory tract**
    • Urogenital tract
    • GI tract
  34. Name the step:
    Entry of the virus genome into the host cell
    Most viruses produce enzymes to degrade the host cell membrane
    Nucleic acid core enters host cell
    The capsid remains on the host cell exterior
    Penetration/Uncoating
  35. Name the step:
    Virus replicates to ensure survival
    Viral nucleic acids take over host DNA
    Host produces viral components
    Host cell membrane breaks down
    Immune response is initated but unable to respond
    Prodromal period
    Replication/Synthesis
  36. What is the prodromal period?
    time before clinical signs and symptoms appear
  37. What are the two cycles that viruses go through?
    Which is more common?**
    • Lytic**
    • Lysogenic
  38. Name the cycle:
    Viral DNA destroys cell DNA, takes over cell functions and destroys the cell
    The virus replicates and produces progeny
    There are symptoms of viral infection
    Virulent infection takes place
    lytic
  39. Name the cycle:
    Viral DNA merges with Cell DNA and doesn't destroy the cell
    The virus doesn't produce progeny
    No symptoms of infection
    Temperate infection takes place
    lysogenic
  40. Name the step:
    Concentration of viral components
    Produce virions
    Almost immediately leave cell
    If cell is destroyed causes signs of disease
    Move to neighboring cells to start over
    Some shed in secretions
    Some circulate
    assembly/release
  41. What is VIREMIA?!
    circulating viruses in blood

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