250 interpreting labs

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250 interpreting labs
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2013-09-05 10:26:37
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250 interpreting labs
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  1. CBC includes
    • hemoglobin
    • hematocrit
    • RBC
    • red cell indices and morphology
    • WBC
    • WBC indifferential
    • platelet count
    • platelet morphology
  2. pancytopenia=
    • decreased RBC
    • decreased WBC
    • decreased platelet
  3. hemoglobin =
    • Hgb serves as a vehicle for oxygen and Co2 transport
    • tells you about gas-carrying capacity of RBC
  4. adult male hgb =
    14-18 g/dl
  5. adult femal hgb norm
    12-16 g/dl
  6. increased hemoglobin levels would mean
    dehydration
  7. decreased levels of hgb could mean
    • anemia
    • hemorrhage
    • hemodilution
  8. hematocrit is
    represents the percentage of RBCs compared with the total blood volume
  9. adult femal Hct norm =
    40 - 54%
  10. adult female norm =
    38-47%
  11. hematocrit increase or decrease in levels are the same as
    hemoglobin
  12. hematocrit is generally how many more times than hemoglobin
    • 3 times
    • if hgb is 12 hct is 36
  13. normal RBC male count =
    4.5 - 6
  14. adult female norm RBC
    4 - 5
  15. normal WBC count =
    5000-10000
  16. increased WBC =
    leukocytosis
  17. decreased WBC level count =
    leukopenia
  18. MCV means
    mean corpuscular volume
  19. MCH mean
    mean corpuscular hemoglobin
  20. MCHC means
    mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
  21. RDW mean
    red blood cell distribution width
  22. red blood cell indices are what
    • indicators that reflect RBC volume, color, and hemoglobin saturation
    • vital in classifying anemia and understanding cause
  23. NLMEB =
    • never. let. mama. eat beans
    • order in amounts of WBC
    • neutorphil
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  24. WBC differential =
    % of each type of leukocyte in specimen
  25. what stimulates neutrophil production
    acute bacterial infection and trauma
  26. what does shift to the left mean
    • patient has exhauted polys or (mature) WBC and now have more bands (juvenile)
    • which means they have a serious infection
  27. platelet activity is essential for what
    blood clotting
  28. platelets are also called
    thrombocytes
  29. normal platelet count  =
    150,000 - 400,000 mm3
  30. increased levels of thrombocytes could mean
    • malignant disorders
    • inflammation
  31. decreased levels of thrombocytes (thrombocytopenia) could mean
    • leukemia
    • disseminated intravascualr coagulation
    • chemotherapy
  32. spontaneous hemorrhage is possible once platelet count falls below
    20,000
  33. bleeding precaution neumonic =
    • RANDI
    • razor - electric
    • aspirin - NO
    • needles - small guage
    • decrease needle sticks
    • injury - protect from
  34. C-reactive protein helps in diagnosis of
    inflammatory  diseases, infections, and active widespread malignancy
  35. why do docs look at CRP
    • to see if they are responding to treatments
    • if titer decreasing, the patient is responding to treatment and or the acute phase is declining
  36. ESR is what
    • erythrocyte sedimentation rate
    • rate at which RBC settle in unclotted blood
    • this is non-spscific and can be increased in acute inflammatory process
  37. PT time =
    • prothrombin time
    • assessment of extrinsic coagulation
    • measures the amount of time it takes for clot formation
    • factors = I, II, V, VII, X
  38. PT time is used for
    monitor response to warfarin sodium therapy (coumadin)
  39. antagonist to coumadin  =
    vit K
  40. a pt value within what of the control is considered normal
    2 seconds
  41. normal PT times in this area are
    11.0 - 12.5
  42. full anticoagulation therapy is what
    • the amount the PT time that you want
    • in other words you don't want a pt to clot so you want their PT time to be 1.5- 2 times the control
    • 1.5 - 2 times control value
  43. what are some interfering factors that prolong PT times
    alcohol, heparin, salicylates
  44. shortened PT times can be caused by
    • pt clots faster
    • diets high in green leafy vegetables
    • benadryl
    • oral contracetives
    • vitamin K
  45. INR =

    normal values
    • international normalized ratio
    • therapeutic INR 2-3.5
  46. prosthetic heart valve INR values =
    2.5-3.5
  47. DVT INR normals =
    2-3
  48. aPTT =
    used for what
    • activated partial thromboplastin time
    • to assess the intrinsic system of clot formation
    • this is the test of choice for monitoing heparin therapy
  49. test for coumadin/warfarin
    • PT
    • INR
  50. test of choice for monitoring heparin
    test aPTT
  51. antidote for heparin
    protamin sulfate
  52. normal values for aPTT
    30-40 seconds
  53. therapeutic index for aPTT is
    • 50 - 100 seconds
    • which is 1.5 - 2.5 times control value of 30 - 40 seconds
  54. PT, INR, and aPTT are all drawn in a what
    blue tube
  55. BUN =
    • blood urea nitrogen
    • primarily used for determining renal function
  56. increased BUN levels =
    • > 20
    • renal disease
    • dehydration
  57. normal BUN levels =
    10 - 20 mg/dl
  58. BUN mainly used for
    • dehydration
    • elevated BUN
  59. creatinine is released when
    muscle tissue is broken down
  60. creatinine is used to determine
    indicator of kidney function
  61. normal creatinine male levels
    0.6 - 1.2 mg/dl
  62. normal female creatinine levels
    0.5 - 1.1 mg/dl
  63. if BUN increases and serum creatinine remains normal that means
    dehydration is present
  64. is both BUN and creatinine are increased that means
    a renal disorder is present
  65. which is a better indicator for renal disease BUN or creatinine
    creatinine
  66. BUN used mainly to assess
    dehydration
  67. if pt is suspected to have appendicitis you would draw what labs
    WBC with differential
  68. which WBC count would most likely to be increased with appendicitis and why
    • neutrophils
    • because they are the first responders
  69. a PT an INR that is higher than the theraoeutic range what would DOC do
    lower or hold next coumadin dose

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