Bio Chapter One Required Reading (Pt. 2)

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Bio Chapter One Required Reading (Pt. 2)
2013-09-08 18:29:32
Cell Bio

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  1. i. first compound light microscopes made by end of __century
  2. a.       __, an English microscopist, discovered cells
                                                                  i.      was curious about __

    1.      discovered __ of dead plant tissue
    • Robert Hooke
    • cork’s ability to hold air in bottles
    • empty cell walls
  3. a.       __, a Dutchman who sold clothes and buttons, grinded lenses and made simple microscopes
                                                                  i.      discovered (using pond water) teeming “__”
    1.      first to describe various forms of bacteria
    a.       everyone was skeptical at first
    • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    • animalcules
  4. a.       1830s: breakthrough year; importance of cells realized
                                                                  i.      1838: __, a German lawyer turned botanist, concluded that, despite differences in structure of various tissues, plants were made of __and the __ arose from a single cell
    • Matthias Schleiden
    • cells 
    • plant embryo
  5.                                                               i.      1839: __, a German zoologist, published a report on the cellular basis of animal life
    1.      What did he say?

    • Theodor Schwann
    • said cells of plants and animals are similar structures and proposed two parts of cell theory:
    • a. all organisms are composed of one or more cells
    • b. the cell is the structural unit of life
  6.                                                               i.      Schleiden and Schwann were wrong about origin of  cells, saying they could arise from __

    1.      when disproved, the third part of the cell theory came about
    a.    __
    • noncellular material
    •    cells can arise only by division from a preexisting cell
  7. a.       __is the most basic property of cells, and __are the smallest units to exhibit this property
                                                                  i.      __ can be isolated and still grow and reproduce, but __ cannot
    1.      will die if mistreated, but, in the body, they die by __
    • life 
    • cells 
    • whole cells
    • cell parts
    • their “own hand”(eliminate themselves)
  8. a.       First culture of human cells began by __                                                              i.      taken from malignant tumor of __

    b.      because easier to study, cells grown __ are important for scientists
    • George and Martha Grey
    • Henrietta Lacksà HeLa cells
    • in vitro (in culture)
  9.                                                               i.      complexity thought of as __ and __

    1.      more complex= __
    • order and consistency
    • greater number of parts that must be in right place and less errors in nature and interactions of parts, as well as more regulation or control that must be exerted to maintain the system
  10.                                                               i.      __at every level
    1.      cell’s __have specific shape and location and consistent composition of __, which have a __
    a.       ex: epithelial cells in intestine
    • consistency 
    • organelles
    • macromolecules
    • predictable pattern
  11. True or False:
    Completely different species are similar at the cellular level
    • True
    • ex. ATP synthases are similar
  12.                                                               i.      organisms built based on info in __made of __found in __
    1.      genes also have info for __(3)__
                                                                ii.      Changes in genetic info (__)= __-->__
    • genes 
    • DNA
    • chromosomes
    • constructing cellular structures, running activities, and reproducing selves
    • mutation
    • variation
    • evolution
  13.                                                               i.      reproduction: __

    1.      first, __; then, __
    a.       usually equal, unless __
    mother cell -->  two daughter cells

    genetic info is duplicated

    • it is evenly distributed
    • reproduction (oocyte divides and one daughter gets all of cytoplasm with only half of genetic material)
  14.                                                               i.      all energy used by life is from the __, trapped by __ of __cells and converted to chemical energy stored in __, like sucrose

    • light-absorbing pigments
    • photosynthetic 
    • carbs
  15.                                                               i.      for animal cells, energy is already made, usually in form of __
    1.      __is released by __ into blood to deliver __
    a.       it will then __in way that allows its energy content to be stored until needed
    • glucose
    • glucose 
    • liver
    • chemical energy
    • disassemble
  16.                                                               i.      cells use a lot of energy __ macromolecules and organelles
    1.      this __ maintains __in face of wear and tear and allows __
    • breaking and remaking
    • turnover
    • unity 
    • rapid response
  17. a.       Cells and Chemical Reactions
                                                                  i.      they all require __
                                                                ii.      sum total of chemical reactions in a cell= __
    • enzymes
    • metabolism
  18. a.       Cells and Mechanical Activities
                                                                  i.      Three examples
                                                                ii.      aided by __ used by cell to carry out mechanical actions
    • materials transported, structures (dis)assembled, cell movement
    • motor proteins
  19. a.       Cells and Stimuli
                                                                  i.      obvious examples: movement toward or away
                                                                ii.      cells of multicellular plant are less obvious
    1.      Most cells covered with __that interact in specific ways and respond to __(4)__,, etc.
                                                              iii.      Receptors allow __ in target cells, like altering metabolic activities, apoptosis, etc.
    • receptors 
    • hormones, growth factors, extracellular material,
    • other surface material
    • specific responses
  20. a.       Cells and Self- Regulation
                                                                  i.      __: hearty and durable
    1.      defines cells because they can survive __ by using __

    maintaining stability requires __
    1.      1891: __ (German embryologist)tried to separate the first 2- 4 cells of sea urchin embryo
    • robustness
    • dangerous fluctuations
    • feedback circuits

    • regulation
    • Hans Dreisch
  21.                                                               i.      In cells, the information for product design resides in the __, and the construction workers are primarily __
    1.      it is the presence of these two types of macromolecules that sets the __of the cell apart from that of the nonliving world
                                                                ii.      each step of a process in a cell must be __enough to automatically trigger the next step
    • nucleic acids
    • proteins
    • chemistry 
    • spontaneous
  22. a.       Cells Evolve
                                                                  i.      it’s assumed cells evolved from some kind of __, which in turn evolved from __ present in the seas
                                                                ii.      cells, despite differences, are very similar (common genetic code, plasma membrane, ribosomes)
                                                              iii.      all organisms have evolved from single, ancestral cell; called __
    • precellular life form
    • nonliving organic materials
    • last universal common ancestor (LUCA)
  23. I.                   Two Fundamentally Different Classes of Cells
    a.       __(simpler; include bacteria) vs. __ (complex; include fungi, protists, plants, and animals)
    b.      __appeared 2.4 billion years ago when the air contained __, a byproduct of __
    • prokaryotic 
    • eukaryotic
    • cyanobacteria 
    • O2 (molecular oxygen)
    • photosynthesis
  24. a.       Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
                                                                  i.      shared characteristics show what?
    that eukaryotes developed from prokaryotes
  25. Similarities of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    • 1.      both have plasma membranes that are selectively permeable and are similarly constructed
    • a.       both types may be surrounded by rigid, nonliving cell wall (protects)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      may have similar function, but different composition
  26. Differences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    - nuclear region
    • a.       pro: genetic material present in a nucleoid 
    • b.      euk: nucleus 
  27. nucleoid
    (poorly demarcated region of the cell that lacks a boundary membrane to separate it from the surrounding cytoplasm
  28. nucleoid
    (region bounded by a complex membranous structure called the nuclear envelope
  29. Difference of prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
    • a.       pro: small amounts of DNA (600k base pairs to 8 million, encoding 500 to several thousand proteins); DNA 3 mm long at most
    • b.      euk: more
  30. Difference of prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
    • a.       pro:  single, circular chromosome
    • b.      euk: separate chromosomes, each with linear DNA and tightly associated with proteins to form a complex nucleoprotein material called chromatin
  31. Difference of prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
    • a.       pro: no membranous structures
    • b.      euk: filled with a lot of structures and membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, ER, Golgi complexes, etc. (plants have more, like a large vacuole and chloroplasts)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      COMPARTMENTALIZED
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      very crowded with little space for the soluble phase of cytoplasm, called cytosol
  32. Difference of prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
    • a.       pro: simple diffusion
    • b.      euk: cytoplasmic membranes form a system of interconnecting channels and vesicles that transport substances
  33. Difference of prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
    • a.       pro: primitive cytoskeletal filaments
    • b.      euk: tubules and filaments of the cytoskeleton (cell contractility, movement, support)
  34. Difference of prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
    • 1.      both participate in protein synthesis
    • a.       pro: smaller with fewer components
    • b.      euk: larger
  35. REproduction of prokaryotes 
    a.       pro: no __ or __                                                                                                                                      i.      DNA copied and separated by growth of __
                                                                                                                                        ii.      __
    1.      only one copy of their single chromosome and have no processes similar to __
    a.       some can do __, in which a piece of DNA is passed from one cell to another
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      never a whole chromosome

                                                                                                                                      iii.      can pick up and __ from environmentà evolution
    • compaction of chromosomes or spindle
    • intervening cell membrane
    • nonsexual
    • meiosis, gamete formation, or true fertilization
    • conjugation
    • incorporate foreign DNA
  36. REproduction of eukaryotes

    a.       euk: __
         i.      duplicated chromosomes __and separate by __
    • mitosis
    • condense 
    • microtubule-containing apparatus (mitotic spindle)
  37. Difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
    • a.       pro: thin filament (flagellum) protruding from cell and rotates (1000x/ sec)
    • b.      euk: complex mechanisms
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      some have flagella, but they’re more complex and move differently