Bio Chapter One Required Reading (Pt. 1)

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  1.                                                               i.      Prokaryotes live in complex, multispecies communities called __ (plaque) with different activities
    1.      sophisticated and highly evolved: able to live in environment with __
    a.       in contrast, eukaryotes require __
    • biofilms
    • bare nutrients
    • organic compounds
  2. a.       Types of Prokaryotic Cells
                                                                  i.      distinction between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is based on __ and not on __
    structural complexity and not on phylogenetic relationship
  3.                                                               i.      Division of prokaryotes
    1.      __: closely related to eukaryotes
    a.       connected due to similarities in __
    b.      live in very __= __
    c. Some also live in environments with normal temp, pH, etc.
    2. __

    • Archaea (archaebacteria)
    • nucleotide sequences
    • inhospitable environments= extremophiles
    • Bacterial
  4. Types of extremophiles:
    • methanogens
    • halophiles
    • acidophiles
    • thermophiles
  5. methanogens
    prokaryotes capable of converting CO2 and H2 gases into methane gas
  6. halophiles
         i.      prokaryotes that live in very salty places]
  7. acidophiles
    acid=loving prokaryotes that thrive in places with pH lower than 0
  8. thermophiles
    prokaryotes that live at very high temperatures]
  9. 1.      Bacteria (eubacteria)

     a.       includes __, the __(lack a cell wall and contain a genome with < 500 genes
    b.      most complex= __, with elaborate arrays of __, which serve as sites of __
    • smallest cells
    • mycoplasma 
    • cyanobacteria
    • cytoplasmic membranes
    • photosynthesis
  10. Cyanobacteria membranes                                                                                                                                       i.      membranes resemble __ present within __of plant cells
                                                                                                                                        ii.      capable of both photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, the conversion of nitrogen (N2) gas into reduced forms of nitrogen like ammonia (NH3) that can be used to make nitrogen –containing organic compounds
    • photosynthetic membranes
    • chloroplasts 
    • photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation
  11.                                                               i.      Prokaryotic Diversity
    1.      culturing __usually identifies it
    2.      prokaryotes are barely visible in a __ and their __ is not distinctive
    • pathogen 
    • light microscope
    • morphology
  12. 1.      instead of culturing DNA to learn about diversity, __ helps since all organisms share certain genes; they still vary
    2.      by revealing DNA sequences of a particular gene in a certain environment, one can learn the __
    • analyzing certain DNA sequences
    • diversity
  13. 1.      __: sequencing and collecting all the genes in a collective genome
    2.      __: collection of microbes
    3.      more than __ of organisms are thought to live in __ well beneath the oceans and upper soil layers
    • metagenome
    • microbiome
    • 90%
    • subsurface sediments
  14.                                                               i.      Types of Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Specialization
    1.      most complex are __

    a.       __are one evolutionary pathway; the other is __(different types of activities are conducted by different cell types
                                                                                                                                          i.      specialized cells formed by __, which depends on signals received from its environment
    • unicellular protists-
    • complex unicellular organisms 
    • multicellular 
    • differentiation
  15. 1.      __causes distinctive appearances and unique materials
    a.       __: network of precisely aligned filaments composed of unique contractile proteins
    b.      __= matrix of collagen and polysaccharides
    c.       still have similar organelles, just with some variation based on activities
    • differentiation 
    • skeletal muscle
    • cartilage
  16.                                                               i.      Model Organisms

    1.      organisms used for research (there are six: one prokaryote, 5 eukaryotes)
    WHAT ARE THEY? (dont need to know scientific name)
    • a.       E. coli bacterium
    • b.      budding yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • c.       flowering plant: Arabidopsis thaliana
    • d.      nematode: Caenorhabditis elegans
    • e.       fruit fly: drosophila melanogaster
    • mouse: mus musculus
  17.                                                               i.      Size and Components of Cells
    1.      units: __(1= 10-6 meters) and __(10-9)
    2.      __(1/10 of a nm) for atomic dimensions
    3.      large biological molecules are described in __ or __

    4.      cells and organelles are described in __
    a.       pro: 1-5 micrometers/ euk: 10-30
    • micrometer 
    • nanometer 
    • angstrom 
    • angstroms or nanometers
    • micrometers
  18. 1.      Most eukaryotic cells have __ with only__ copies of most genes and can only produce a limited number of __
    a.       the greater a cell’s cytoplasmic volume, the __
    • single nucleus
    •  2
    • mRNA
    • longer it takes to make messages required by the cell
  19. 1.      Increase SAà __
    a.       exchange with environment depends on __
    b.      this leads to __on cell surface for __ or __ cells
    • decrease in surface area: volume ratio
    • surface area
    • modifications 
    • metabolically active or absorptive
  20. 1.      a cell depends on random movement of molecules (__)
    a.       time required for diffusion is proportional to __

    b.      the larger the cell, the __the diffusion time
    • diffusion
    • square of the distance to  be traversed
    • longer
  21.                                                               i.      Synthetic Biology
    1.      create minimal type of living cell in the lab from scratch
    a.       goal: __
    demonstrate that life at the cellular level emerges spontaneously when the proper constituents are brought together from chemically synthesized materials
  22. 1.      properties and activities of cell are from __ of that cell
    a.       because of this, it should be possible to create a new type of cell by introducing a __
    • genetic blueprint
    • new genetic blueprint into the cytoplasm of an existing cell
  23.                                                                                                                                       i.  ____ was accomplished by __ in 2007, when they replaced the __of one bacterium with an isolated __of another species, transforming one species into another
    1.      following __, the cell took the other specie’s characteristics
    a.       scientists now developed cells with a “__” to which they can add combos of new genes
    • genome transplantation
    • J. Craig Venter
    • genome 
    • genome
    • genome transplantation
    • genetic skeleton
  24. 1.      Researchers are trying to genetically engineer organisms to possess metabolic pathways capable of producing __, __, etc.  for cheap
    • pharmaceuticals
    • hydrocarbon-based fuel molecules
  25. I.                   Viruses
    a.       __ and others convinced the world that infectious diseases of plants/ animals were due to bacteria and led to discovery of viruses
    Louis Pasteur
  26.                                                               i.      __ forced sap from a diseased plant through filters whose pores restricted passage of bacteriaà still infectedà discovery of viruses
    Dmitri Ivanovsky
  27.                                                               i.      1935: __ said viruses responsible for TMD could be crystallized and that they were infective
    1.      __was a single molecule of RNA surrounded by a helical shell composed of protein subunits
    • Wendell Stanley
    • TMV
  28. Virus Characteristics
    1.      __ (can’t reproduce without host)
    a.       outside of living cell, the virus is a particle (__: little more than a macromolecular package containing a bit o genetic material that can be either SS or DS RNA and DNA)
    b.      genetic material surrounded by __
    • obligatory intracellular parasites
    • virion
    • protein capsule, or capsid
  29. 1.      __are macromolecular aggregates, inanimate particles that by selves can’t reproduce, metabolize, etc.--> not considered to be __
    2.      the __can be made of one or several proteins
    a.       if a little, not much __needed for protein coat
    b.      polyhedrons, 20-side __are larger
    c.       in many animal viruses (HIV), the protein capsid is surrounded by a __ that is derived from the __ of the host cell as the virus buds from the host-cell surface
    • Virions 
    • alive
    • capsid 
    • genes 
    • icosahedrons 
    • lipid-containing outer envelope 
    • modified plasma membrane
  30. 1.      Bacterial viruses (__)= most complex and abundant
    2.      Each virus has on surface a protein capable of __ (specificityà __)
    a.       some __ can be wide (different species or organs) or narrow
    b.      change in host-cell specificity can have consequences, such as the flu
    • bacteriophages
    • binding to a particular surface component of the host cell
    • host range
    • host ranges
  31.                                                               i.      two types of viral infections
    The first:

    1.      virus __ of the host and __the cell to use its available materials to manufacture __, which assemble into new __
    a.       viruses don’t grow like cells; they are __
    b.      the infected cell __and releases viral particles to neighbors
    • arrests the normal synthetic activities
    • redirects 
    • viral nucleic acids and proteins
    • virions
    • assembled from components directly into virions
    • ruptures
  32.                                                               i.      two types of viral infections
    The second:

    1.      does not lead to death, but inserts its DNA into host cell DNA (__)
    a.       can behave normally until stimulus activates itsà __ and spread
    b.      cells with __can produce new viral progeny that bud at cell surface without __(factory for production of new virions)

    c.       some animal cells with __lose control over own growth and division and become __
    • provirus
    • lysis
    • provirus 
    • lysis 
    • provirus 
    • malignant
  33.                                                               i.      Viruses are now being used as means to introduce __ into human cells for treating human diseases
    1.      insect and bacteria-killing viruses used against insect pests and bacterial pathogens
    foreign genes
  34. a.       Viroids
                                                                  i.      viruses are not simplest types of infectious agents
    1.      __ discovered infectious agent of small circular RNA without protein coat= __
    a.       240-600 nucleotides
    b.      use __
    c.       cause disease by interfering with cell’s normal path of __
    • T.O Diener
    • viroid
    • host-cell proteins
    • gene expression

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Bio Chapter One Required Reading (Pt. 1)
2013-09-06 02:49:47
Cell Bio

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