Card Set Information
Chap. 2 study guide
Among the biologically important groups of inorganic compounds are:
simple acids and bases
An element is a substance that cannot be seperated into simpler parts by:
ordinary chemical reations
Over 96% of an organism's weight is made up of the 4 elements:
The three main parts of an atom are the _______. The _______ compose the atomic nucleus, and the _______ occupy the mostly empty space surrounding the nucleus.
protons and neutrons
______ have one unit of positive charge, ______ are neutral, and ______ have a negative charge.
The number of protons in an atom is called the:
O indicates that oxygen has _____ protons.
An atomic mass unit (amu) is also called a:
The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is referred to as the:
The ______ of isotopes vary, but the _____ remain constant.
protons and electrons
Some isotopes are unstable and emit radiation when they decay, these are termed:
Electrons with the same energy comprise an:
The electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom are called ______ electrons.
All elements in the same group on the periodic table have similar ________.
A chemical compound consists of _____ that are combined in a fixed ratio.
atoms of two or more different elements
A ______ forms when two or more atoms are joined very strongly.
A _____ formula simply uses chemical symbols to describe the chemical composition of a compound.
A ______ formula shows not only the types and number of atoms in a molecule but also their arrangement.
The molecular mass of a compound is the sum of the:
atomic mass of the component atoms of a single molecule.
A 1 molar solution contains one _____ of a substance ______ in one _______.
liter of liquid
The amount of a compound in grams that is equal to its atomic mass is called one:
______ are substances that participate in the reaction, ______ are substances formed by the reaction.
Arrows are used to indicate the direction of a reaction; reactants are placed to the ______ of arrows, products are placed to ______ of arrows.
_____ can hold atoms together and involve _____.
Depending on the number of electrons shared they can be _____, ______, or ______ covalent bonds.
Covalently bonded atoms with similar electronegativities are called _____, and covalently bonded atoms with differing electronegativities are called ______.
Ionic compounds are comprised of positively charged ions called ______, and negatively charged ions called ______.
In the presence of a ______ an ionic compound will dissolve to produce a ______.
The process known as ______ has occurred when cations and anions of an ionic compound are surrounded by the charged ends of molecules.
Hydrogen Bonds tend to form between an ______ covalently bonded to an ______ and an atom with a partial ______ charge.
oxygen or nitrogen
Hydrogen bonds are individually ______, but are collectively ______ when present in large numbers.
Van der Waals interactions are weak forces based on fluctuating _______.
Reactions involving oxidation and reduction are called _______ reactions.
When iron rusts, it loses electrons and is said to be ______, while at the same time oxygen gains electrons and is ______.
In humans, water makes up about __% of total body weight.
Cohesion of water molecules is due to _____ between the molecules and contributes to ______.
______ is the ability of water molecules to stick to other substances.
The tendency of water to move through narrow tubes as the result of adhesion and cohesion is known as ______.
Substances that interact readily with water are said to be ______, whereas those that don't are called ______.
When nonpolar molecules interact with each other instead of water it is called an:
Evaporative cooling depends on the high _____ of water.
heat of vaporization
A _____ is a unit of heat energy.
Water has a high ______, constant internal temperature.
An acid is a proton donor that dissociates in solution to yield _____. A base is a proton acceptor that generally dissociates in solution to yield ______.
hydrogen ions and anions
hydroxide ion and a cation when dissolved in water
The pH scale covers the range _____ and is a _____ scale. Neutrality is at pH ______.
A solution with a pH above 7 is a _____. A solution with a pH below 7 is a _____.
A _____ is a weak acid or a weak base.
Dissociated ions called _______ can conduct an electric current when a salt, an acid, or a base is dissolved in water.
An uncharged subatomic particle.
The condition of a chemical reaction when the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.
The shape of a molecule when it appears as a three-dimensional pyramid.
The process whereby ionic compounds combine chemically with water and dissolve.
Not attracted to water; insoluble in water.
A substance that does not form ions when dissolved in water, and therefore does not conduct an electric current.
Having a strong affinity for water; soluble in water.
The loss of electrons, or the loss of hydrogen atoms from a compound.
The total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus.
Substances dissolved in water that can conduct electrical current.
The smallest subdivision of an element that retains its chemical properties.
Chemical bond that involves one or more shared pairs of electrons.
The name of the outermost electrons.
An ion with a negative electric charge.
An ion with a positive electric charge.
The amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of a substance 1 degree Celsius.
Type of interaction key to water's unique properties.
Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means are:
Adhesion of water molecules results from:
attraction between water and other substances.
C stands for:
carbon with six protons
Reduction has occurred when
an atom gains an electron
an ion gains an electron
When two atoms combine by sharing two pairs of their electrons, the bond is a
A form of an element that is progressing toward a more stable state by emitting radiation is called a
The outer electron energy level of an atom
determines chemical properties
If the number of neutrons in an atom is changed, it will also change
Dissociation of _____ ions may result in the formation of electrolytes.
The atomic nucleus contains
protons and neutrons