Bio. 101

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Shelby21
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Bio. 101
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2013-09-05 14:31:11
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Chap. 2 study guide
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  1. Among the biologically important groups of inorganic compounds are:
    • water
    • simple acids and bases
    • simple salts
  2. An element is a substance that cannot be seperated into simpler parts by:
    ordinary chemical reations
  3. Over 96% of an organism's weight is made up of the 4 elements:
    • oxygen
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • nitrogen
  4. The three main parts of an atom are the _______. The _______ compose the atomic nucleus, and the _______ occupy the mostly empty space surrounding the nucleus.
    • protons,neutrons,and electrons
    • protons and neutrons
    • electrons
  5. ______ have one unit of positive charge, ______ are neutral, and ______ have a negative charge.
    • protons
    • neutrons
    • electrons
  6. The number of protons in an atom is called the:
    atomic number
  7. The symbol 8O indicates that oxygen has _____ protons.
    8
  8. An atomic mass unit (amu) is also called a:
    dalton
  9. The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is referred to as the:
    atomic mass
  10. The ______ of isotopes vary, but the _____ remain constant.
    • neutrons
    • protons and electrons
  11. Some isotopes are unstable and emit radiation when they decay, these are termed:
    radioisotopes
  12. Electrons with the same energy comprise an:
    electron shell
  13. The electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom are called ______ electrons.
    valence
  14. All elements in the same group on the periodic table have similar ________.
    chemical properties
  15. A chemical compound consists of _____ that are combined in a fixed ratio.
    atoms of two or more different elements
  16. A ______ forms when two or more atoms are joined very strongly.
    molecule
  17. A _____ formula simply uses chemical symbols to describe the chemical composition of a compound.
    chemical
  18. A ______ formula shows not only the types and number of atoms in a molecule but also their arrangement.
    Structural formula
  19. The molecular mass of a compound is the sum of the:
    atomic mass of the component atoms of a single molecule.
  20. A 1 molar solution contains one _____ of a substance ______ in one _______.
    • mol
    • dissolved
    • liter of liquid
  21. The amount of a compound in grams that is equal to its atomic mass is called one:
    mole
  22. ______ are substances that participate in the reaction, ______ are substances formed by the reaction.
    • Reactants
    • products
  23. Arrows are used to indicate the direction of a reaction; reactants are placed to the ______ of arrows, products are placed to ______ of arrows.
    • left
    • right
  24. _____ can hold atoms together and involve _____.
    • chemical bonds
    • valence electrons
  25. Depending on the number of electrons shared they can be _____, ______, or ______ covalent bonds.
    • single 
    • double 
    • triple
  26. Covalently bonded atoms with similar electronegativities are called _____, and covalently bonded atoms with differing electronegativities are called ______.
    • nonpolar 
    • polar
  27. Ionic compounds are comprised of positively charged ions called ______, and negatively charged ions called ______.
    • cations
    • anions
  28. In the presence of a ______ an ionic compound will dissolve to produce a ______.
    • solvent
    • solute
  29. The process known as ______ has occurred when cations and anions of an ionic compound are surrounded by the charged ends of molecules.
    hydration
  30. Hydrogen Bonds tend to form between an ______ covalently bonded to an ______ and an atom with a partial ______ charge.
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen or nitrogen
    • negative
  31. Hydrogen bonds are individually ______, but are collectively ______ when present in large numbers.
    • weak
    • strong
  32. Van der Waals interactions are weak forces based on fluctuating _______.
    electric charges
  33. Reactions involving oxidation and reduction are called _______ reactions.
    Redox
  34. When iron rusts, it loses electrons and is said to be ______, while at the same time oxygen gains electrons and is ______.
    • oxidized
    • reduced
  35. In humans, water makes up about __% of total body weight.
    70
  36. Cohesion of water molecules is due to _____ between the molecules and contributes to ______.
    • hydrogen bonding
    • surface tension
  37. ______ is the ability of water molecules to stick to other substances.
    cohesion
  38. The tendency of water to move through narrow tubes as the result of adhesion and cohesion is known as ______.
    capillary action
  39. Substances that interact readily with water are said to be ______, whereas those that don't are called ______.
    • hydrophilic
    • hydrophobic
  40. When nonpolar molecules interact with each other instead of water it is called an:
    hydrophobic interaction
  41. Evaporative cooling depends on the high _____ of water.
    heat of vaporization
  42. A _____ is a unit of heat energy.
    calorie
  43. Water has a high ______, constant internal temperature.
    specific heat
  44. An acid is a proton donor that dissociates in solution to yield _____. A base is a proton acceptor that generally dissociates in solution to yield ______.
    • hydrogen ions and anions
    • hydroxide ion and a cation when dissolved in water
  45. The pH scale covers the range _____ and is a _____ scale. Neutrality is at pH ______.
    • 0-14
    • logarithmic 
    • 7
  46. A solution with a pH above 7 is a _____. A solution with a pH below 7 is a _____.
    • base
    • acid
  47. A _____ is a weak acid or a weak base.
    buffer
  48. Dissociated ions called _______ can conduct an electric current when a salt, an acid, or a base is dissolved in water.
    electrolytes
  49. An uncharged subatomic particle.
    neutron
  50. The condition of a chemical reaction when the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.
    equilibrium
  51. The shape of a molecule when it appears as a three-dimensional pyramid.
    tetrahedron
  52. The process whereby ionic compounds combine chemically with water and dissolve.
    hydration
  53. Not attracted to water; insoluble in water.
    hydrophobic
  54. A substance that does not form ions when dissolved in water, and therefore does not conduct an electric current.
    non- electrolyte
  55. Having a strong affinity for water; soluble in water.
    hydrophilic
  56. The loss of electrons, or the loss of hydrogen atoms from a compound.
    Oxidation
  57. The total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus.
    Atomic mass
  58. Substances dissolved in water that can conduct electrical current.
    Electrolyte
  59. The smallest subdivision of an element that retains its chemical properties.
    Atom
  60. Chemical bond that involves one or more shared pairs of electrons.
    Covalent bond
  61. The name of the outermost electrons.
    Valence electrons
  62. An ion with a negative electric charge.
    Anion
  63. An ion with a positive electric charge.
    Cation
  64. The amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of a substance 1 degree Celsius.
    Calorie
  65. Type of interaction key to water's unique properties.
    Hydrogen bond
  66. Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means are:
    elements
  67. Adhesion of water molecules results from:
    attraction between water and other substances.
  68. The symbol 6C stands for:
    carbon with six protons
  69. Anions are
    negative ions
  70. Reduction has occurred when
    • an atom gains an electron
    • an ion gains an electron
  71. When two atoms combine by sharing two pairs of their electrons, the bond is a
    covalent, double
  72. A form of an element that is progressing toward a more stable state by emitting radiation is called a
    radioisotopes
  73. The outer electron energy level of an atom
    determines chemical properties
  74. If the number of neutrons in an atom is changed, it will also change
    atomic mass
  75. Dissociation of _____ ions may result in the formation of electrolytes.
    • salts
    • acids
    • bases
  76. The atomic nucleus contains
    protons and neutrons

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