# module2.txt

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1. Define counter-example
an example that contradicts a scientific conclusion.
2. Define hypothesis
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question.
3. Define theory
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
4. When someone tells you that "science has proven" something, what should you say?
Science can never prove anything.
5. Define scientific law
A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data.
6. Does a scientific theory have to make sense?
No it does not.
7. A feather and a penny are dropped from the top of a building.  Which will hit the ground first?
• the penny.  Remember, the fact that all things fall at the same rate is only true when there is no air.  Air resistance will slow the feather down more than the penny.
8. A feather and a penny are dropped down a long tube which has no air in it.  Which will hit the bottom of the tube first?
Neither, because they will both fall at the same rate.  * Since there is no air in the tube, objects will fall at the same rate, regardless of their weight.

9. What does it take to destroy a scientific law?
Only one counter-example.

*Remember, a scientific law is established simply because the theory has been confirmed by an enormous amount of experimentation.  If a single experiment can be demonstrated to contradict the law, it is no longer a law!

10. Questions 10-13 refer to the following story:
In 1682, Edmund Halley studied a bright object that moved in the night sky. After searching other scientists' works, he noted that similar objects were observed in 1456, 1531, and 1607 that followed a similar path. He decided that those objects were, in fact, the same thing he was studying, and that this object passed by the earth roughly every 76 years. He then predicted that the object would be seen again in 1758. On Christmas Day, the object was indeed, seen again. It is now called Halley's comet, and it comes into view of the earth every 76 years.
What was the observation Halley made to form a hypothesis?
Objects similar to the one he was studying had been seen before by other scientists at regular intervals in history.
11. Questions 10-13 refer to the following story:In 1682, Edmund Halley studied a bright object that moved in the night sky. After searching other scientists' works, he noted that similar objects were observed in 1456, 1531, and 1607 that followed a similar path. He decided that those objects were, in fact, the same thing he was studying, and that this object passed by the earth roughly every 76 years. He then predicted that the object would be seen again in 1758. On Christmas Day, the object was indeed, seen again. It is now called Halley's comet, and it comes into view of the earth every 76 years.

What was the hypothesis?
That the object he was studying was the same thing that the other scientists had seen before.
12. Questions 10-13 refer to the following story:In 1682, Edmund Halley studied a bright object that moved in the night sky. After searching other scientists' works, he noted that similar objects were observed in 1456, 1531, and 1607 that followed a similar path. He decided that those objects were, in fact, the same thing he was studying, and that this object passed by the earth roughly every 76 years. He then predicted that the object would be seen again in 1758. On Christmas Day, the object was indeed, seen again. It is now called Halley's comet, and it comes into view of the earth every 76 years.

What was the experiment that confirmed the hypothesis?
The experiment was to confirm the presence of the comet again in 1758.
13. Questions 10-13 refer to the following story:In 1682, Edmund Halley studied a bright object that moved in the night sky. After searching other scientists' works, he noted that similar objects were observed in 1456, 1531, and 1607 that followed a similar path. He decided that those objects were, in fact, the same thing he was studying, and that this object passed by the earth roughly every 76 years. He then predicted that the object would be seen again in 1758. On Christmas Day, the object was indeed, seen again. It is now called Halley's comet, and it comes into view of the earth every 76 years.

Regular appearances of Halley's comet have been found in history as far back as 2,000 years ago. Is the existence of Halley's comet a theory or a scientific law?
Since the appearance fo the comet has been noted many times throughout history by many different scientists, the existence of Halley's comet is now a scientific law.
14. What are the steps of the scientific method in proper order?
• Make observations
• Form a hypothesis
• Perform experiments to confirm a hypothesis.
• Hypothesis is now a theory.
• Perform many experiments over several years.
• Theory is now a law
15. If a hypothesis does not agree with the experiment which was designed to confirm it, what two choices do you have?
You can discard it or modify it to become consistent with the experiment.
16. If a theory does not agree with the experiments which were designed to test it, what two choices do you have?
You can either discard it or modify it to beocme consistent with the experiment.
17. In the text, I told you about Lowell's belief that there were canals on Mars. Name the observations which led to his hypothesis and the experiments that were used to confirm the hypothesis.
The observation was the fact that there were faint lines on the surface of Mars. The experiments used to confirm the hypothesis were Lowell's detailed studies of Mar's surface.
18. Why was the discovery of high-temperature superconductors so startling to scientist?
Because a generally accepted scientific law said that it was impossible to have high temperature superconductors.
19. What are the three limitations of science?
• It cannot prove anything.
• It is not 100% reliable.

It must conform to the scientific method.
20. Can science be used to study events that will never, ever happen again?
• Yes.
• * As long as the scientific method is followed, science can be used to study anything!
21. Can science be used to study religious ideas?
• Yes.
• * As long as the scientific method is followed, science can be used to study anything!
22. What were the observations I used in the last section of the module to form a hypothesis about the Bible?
The observations were that many people draw strength, hope, and encouragement from the Bible.
23. What was my hypothesis?
That the Bible is the Word of God.
24. What were the experiments I designed to confirm the hypothesis?
• I searched the Bible for knowledge of future events.
• * This would indicate that the Creator of time itself had inpi
• sired the Book.
25. Did I prove my hypothesis?
• No.
• * Science cannot prove anything. I did confirm a hypothesis, however. Thus I provided evidence for its validity. You could even say that the idea that the Bible is the Word of God is scientifically valid theory.

 Author: ToriG ID: 233032 Card Set: module2.txt Updated: 2013-09-05 18:21:10 Tags: Apologia general science Folders: Description: Module 2 study guide Show Answers: