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Timeline of Laws
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (provided programs and services for students with disabilities)
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
1974 - Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1990 renamed Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - IDEA)
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
IDEA: What did it do at its beginning?
In 1974 the Education for All Handicapped Children Act increased federal special education funding. The law was amended several times and expanded to include services for young infants and children, and then in 1990 was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
What are the basics of IDEA as re authorized in 2004? 7 items
1) Zero Reject - all students entitled to FAPE, including private school.
2) Child Find system, procedures to alert public of services.
3) FAPE - including paying for student to go to other school
4) LRE - must justify more restrictive setting.
5) Non discriminatory evaluation
6) Parent right to confidentiality
7) Procedural safeguards
What are examples of nondiscriminatory evaluation? 5 examples
- 1) Native Language
- 2) appropriate for age and characteristics
- 3) more than 1 test used
- 4) professional administers and interprets
- 5) assessed in all areas of suspected disability
What are examples of procedural safeguards? 4 examples
- 1) Informed in writing if child assessed
- 2) invited to all IEP meetings
- 3) Parent gives permission for special-ed
- 4) Procedure to settle disputes
Describe section 504... 3 items
- 1) 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1974
- 2) More Civil Rights, than education rights, e.g. protects all people from discrimination in programs that get federal money
- 3) E.g. kid with diabetes needs to be able to go to school safely
Describe the ADA, 4 points
- 1) ADA of 1990
- 2) Defined disability as any impairment that significantly limits one or more major life activities
- 3) ADA applies to public and private sectors.
- 4) Closed captioning for deaf/hard of hearing, must have ramps and elevators, buses w/ wheelchairs
Describe NCLB, 5 points
- 1) Grades 3-8 assessed in reading and math, and science occasionally
- 2) Schools must demonstrate by 2014 that all students are academically proficient
- 3) High poverty schools that fail for 2 years in a row are subject to sanctions, like letting students go to other schools, improvement plan, tutoring
- 4) All students must be taught by highly qualified teachers
- 5) Disabilities -- the adequate yearly progress goal of 100% includes students with disabilities.
- Most students are not exempt from taking and passing these exams
Numbers: What disability has decreased recently? Increased?
LD down slightly in recent years. OHI (w/ ADHD way up). Autism way up.
When do services begin according to IDEA?
some children are difficult to determine the nature of their needs, so they receive services under a general term developmentally delayed
What is "twice exceptional?"
Twice exceptional or dual exceptionalities - these are students who have a disability but also have some sort of gifted or talented skills
What is Universal Design for learning? What are 3 examples?
Universal design for learning (UDL) (or UDI, for instruction) - originated in architecture as the idea is that if you are trying to add ramps and elevators after you already made the building, its awkward and difficult. But if you do it at the beginning and integrate the thinking into the original plan, its more seamless.
- 1) Differentiated instruction
- 2) evidence based practices, use data
- 3) Assistive technology
What are two goals of RTI?
Ensure students receive extra support as soon as they are identified
Ensure the use of data to inform remedial instruction
What are the rights of the parent? Name all nine?
- Request/permit testing of child
- 2) To be informed in writing about special-ed procedures and rights
- 3) To have testing in home languageMember of IEP team
- 4) FAPE
- 5) LRE
- 6) Notified in writing for any new evaluations
- 7) Procedures when disagreement w/ school: informal dispute meeting, mediation, Impartial hearing
- 8) Access to records
- 9) Informed of progress
What kind of assessments are typically given?
- 2) intellectual ability/intelligence
- 3) school achievement
- 4) social/behavior functioning
- 5) developmental history
What are criteria for assessments resulting in special-ed? 3 criteria
- 1) Do they have a disability?
- 2) Does the disability adversely affect educational performance? (e.g. if medical issue is addressed by medication...)
- 3) Can needs be addressed in special-education?
LD is below-average achievement not explained by other intellectual or sensory factors.
Name the characteristics of LD. 8 of them sucka.
- 1) subaverage achievement
- 2) intra-individual differences. Seem to struggle in some areas and excel in others.
- 3) Often have processing problems (deficits in how receive, organize, express verbally or visually)
- 4) Cerebral dysfunction often
- 5) Exclusion of other conditions (e.g. retardation) and environmental
- 6) Problem spans a lifetime
- 7) Often social problems as well
- 8) Comorbidity - often combines with other conditions. e.g. ED
What is phonemic awareness?
E.G. phonemic awareness is directly connected to reading skills - being able to hear, identify, manipulate phonemes. Hearing CAT and knowing C - A - T
What are 4 problems with the discrepancy model?
- 1) Hard to define ability and measure intelligence.
- 2) IQ depends on achievement in many ways, so IQ for LD person may be lower than reality. Matthew effect. E.G. poor reader will seem to have lower IQ, so there actually won't be a discrepancy.
- 3) Difficult to discriminate between LD and those with low IQ
- 4) Difficult to identify students early on, no discrepancy apparent.
What percentage of students with disabilities have a LD?
over 50%, huge increase since the '70s, with a decrease in MR
What is relationship with LD and race and gender?
1) No conclusive evidence that students of color have a greater representation (as they do with MR)
2) Way more boys than girls. 73% of LD are males. However, in earlier grades, the ratio is less.
Why more boys?
1) Some say boys are worse behaviorally and so are referred more.
2) Likely there is some sort of biological role. Also more males in hearing impairments, visual impairments, orthopedic impairments.
Brain damage can cause more than one disability.
2) Complex body! One area affected, so will the others.
The loss of previously held ability to speak or understand spoken or written language.
- The theory that a change in behavior can be brought on by rewarding good habits and discouraging bad ones. Emphasis on behavior as a result of stimulus.
- --Pavlov and the dogs
- Worked against eugenics movement, which had claimed heredity was the primary force of a person's potential and behavior
- --applied behavior analysis as a treatment for developmental disabilities
- -- Problems --- reflexes and and reinforcements cannot explain all behavior
What is dyspedagogia?
Poor teaching. Some believe it can lead to LD.
What are the 4 causes of LD?
What % of LD children have a family member with LD too?
Probably about 35 - 45%. However its possible runs in family b/c of environmental issues
What is teratogenic?
Teratogens are agents that cause problems for fetuses. Alcohol, cocaine.
What are medical problems that can lead to LD?
Premature birth can result in neurological damage. Diabetes, meningitis, cardiac arrest
What are environmental conditions that can lead to LD?
Really bad parenting, malnutrition, substance abuse