1.6.1 HAP

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1.6.1 HAP
2013-09-05 13:59:38

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  1. what is the purpose of a ligament?
    to stabilize joint
  2. What are capsular ligament?
    ligaments that are part of the joint capsule
  3. what are extracapsular ligaments?
    the ligaments are on the outside of joint capsule
  4. What are intracapsular ligament?
    these are within the joint cavity?
  5. Besides stabilizing joints, what else do they do?
    they prevent over flexion and extension of the back
  6. what are ligaments composed off?
    composed of tightly packed collagen fibers all running at the same direction
  7. What are the small cells that are compressed within the fibers of collagen in the ligaments?
  8. what 2 things does articular cartilage do?
    - cushions bone where they join together

    - helps to reduce friction
  9. what do the small openings on the cartilage contain? And what is their name?
    -they contain cells of cartilage called chondrocytes

  10. (vertebral column ligaments)where does the anterior longitudinal ligament run from?
    sacrum to the atlas
  11. (vertebral column ligaments) Along where does the anteiror longitudinal ligaments attach?
    -anterior side

    -along the bodies of vertebrae as well as intervetebral disks
  12. (vertebral column ligaments) Other than support, what else does the anterior longitudinal ligament do?
    • it helps to prevent hyper extension of the back
    • *bending far back
  13. (vertebral column ligaments) what does the posterior longitudinal ligament do besides support?
    • protects the spine from preventing overflexion
    • *bending too far forward
  14. (vertebral column ligaments) where does the posterior longitudinal ligament run from?
    • scarum to the level of C2
    • *posterior side
  15. (vertebral column ligaments) What is the posterior longitudinal ligament called when it passes C2?
    • tectorial membrane
    • *bc it extends to the skull
  16. (vertebral column ligaments) simple description of posterior longitudinal ligament
    it is a weaker narrower band than the anterior longittudinal ligament
  17. (vertebral column ligaments) Is the ligamentum flavum a continuous ligament?
  18. (vertebral column ligaments) What is the ligamentum flavum?
    it consists of short ligaments that conncet the lamina of each vertabra to those above it and below it
  19. (vertebral column ligaments) what else do the ligamentum flavum do (besides connecting the lamina together)?
    it helps resist extensive flexion
  20. (interveterbral discs) Is the annulus fibrous of disc, outer or inner?
  21. (interveterbral discs) what is the annulus fibrous of disc made off?
    fibrous caritlage
  22. (interveterbral discs) What two ligaments is the annulus fibrous of disc attached 2?
    the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
  23. (interveterbral discs) What causes the annulus fibrous to tear?
    • severe stress or sudden trauma
    • *slipped disk
  24. (interveterbral discs) what happens when the annulus fibrous of disc tears or ruptures?
    the nucleus pulposes herniates (bulges out) and put pressure on the spinal nerve
  25. (interveterbral discs) what is the nucleus pulposes made up off?
    gelatin or gel like pad seen in athletic shoes
  26. (interveterbral discs) what is the purpose of the nucleus pulposes of disc?
    shock absorber
  27. (posterior view of pelvis) what does the sacrotuberous ligament connect?
    the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity
  28. (posterior view of pelvis) what does the sacrospinous connect?
    sacrum to the ischial spine
  29. (posterior view of pelvis)  which lies deeper the scarospinous or sacrotuberous?
    • sacrospinous
    • *it is shorter also
  30. (posterior view of pelvis)  what does the posterior sacroiliac ligament cover?
    the joint between the sacrum and illium
  31. (anterior view of pelvis) Where does the anterior sacriliac ligament sit?
    on anterior side of the ilium and sacrum
  32. (shoulder joint) Acromioclavicular ligament
    -short broad ligament

    -often referred to as AC ligament
  33. (shoulder joint) How can the A.C ligament be torn?
    falling on the shoulder
  34. (shoulder joint) where does the coracoclavicular strecth out to?
    from coracoid process to clavicle
  35. (shoulder joint) How many portions are there for coracoclavicular ligament?
  36. (shoulder joint) what are the 2 portions of the coracoclavicular ligament called?
    • -conide
    • *medial

    • -trapezoid
    • * lateral
  37. (shoulder joint)  what does the glenohumeral do?
    its a thicken band that helps to strengthen the articular capsule that helps to strengthen the articualr capsule anteriorly
  38. (shoulder joint)  what does the glenohumeral form?
    anterior articular capsule
  39. (shoulder joint) what does the transverse humeral do? (2)
    -it crosses the interrubercle groove and holds the tendon of the long head of biceps in place

    -secures the head of the humerus tightly against the gelnoid cavity
  40. (shoulder joint)  where does the coracohumeral ligament run from?
    coracoid process to the humeral end
  41. (shoulder joint) where is the coracohumeral ligament and what does it do? (2)
    -is outside of the articular capsule

    -helps support weight of the arm
  42. (shoulder joint)  where does the coracohumeral extend from?
    coracoid process to the tip of the acromion process
  43. (shoulder joint)  what does the coracohumeral help do?
    holds the shoulder girdle together
  44. (lateral view of shoulder joint) WHat does the glenoid labrum do?
    surrounds the glenoid cavity which helps it deepen it
  45. (shoulder ligaments) where does the coracoacromial ligament extend from?
    acromion to coracoid process
  46. What are the 4 rotator cuff msucles?


    -teres minor

  47. where are the rotator cuff msucles attached to?
    greater tubercle of the humerus
  48. what type of joint is the elbow joint?
    • hinge joint
    • *allows fleixion and extension
    • *uniaxial
    • _moves saggitaly
  49. (elbow joint) does the articular capsule surround the elbow or no?
  50. (elbow joint) articular capsule weak point at elbow joint
    anteriorly and posteriorly
  51. (elbow joints) where is the articular capsule thicken ?
    on the sides by the collateral ligamus
  52. (elbow medial view) where does the ulnar callateral ligament extend from?
    • medial epicondyle of humerus to the ulna
    • *it is triangular in shape
  53. (elbow lateral view) where deos the radial collateral ligament extend from?
    the lateral epicondyle and fans out to the radius
  54. (elbow lateral view) with what ligament does the radial collateral ligament fuse with ?
    annular ligament
  55. (hip joint ligaments) how far does the articualr capsule of the hip joint extend?
    from the rim of acetabulum to the neck of the femur
  56. (hip joint ligaments) what does the acetabular labrum do?
    helps to deepen the acetabulum
  57. (hip joint anterior view) what shape is the iliofemoral ligament adn where does it attach to? (2)
    -y shaped

    -attaches to the femur  as 2 portions
  58. (hip joint anterior view) Where does the pubofemoral ligament extend from? and from what view can it be seen?
    -from the pubis to the femur

  59. (hip joints posterior view) where does the ischiofemoral extend from?
    ischium to femur
  60. (hip joints posterior view) what is the ischiofemoral ligament? and what does it do?
    -it is the thicken articular capsule

    -fuses with remainder of the ligaments on the anterior side
  61. What does the ligament of the head of the femur do?
    it holds the head of the femur to acetabulum
  62. besides holding the head of the femur, what else do the ligament of the head of the femur do?
    carries the blood supply into the head of the femur
  63. what does the transverse acetabular ligament do?
    crosses the acetabular notch of the acetabulum
  64. what else does the transverse acetabular ligament do?
    helps to complete the cup of the acetabulum that which the head of the femur is located
  65. What forms the knee joint? (3)


  66. (knee joint anterior view) what is  The medial patella retinaculum
    • a medial extension of the patellar tendon
    • *it is thinner
  67. (knee joint anterior view) what is the lateral patella retanculum?
    is the lateral extension of the patellar tendon
  68. (knee joint anterior view) Where does the fibular collateral ligament extend?
    lateral epicondyle of femur to the head of the fibula
  69. (knee joint anterior view) Where is the fibular collateral ligament located? and how does it look like?
    -lateral ligament

    -cordlike ligament
  70. (knee joint anterior view) where does the tibial collateral ligament extend from?
    medial epicondyle of the femur to the superior part of the medial tibia
  71. (knee joint anterior view) Where is tbial collateral ligament located and how does it look like?

    -it is a flattened band
  72. (knee joint anterior view) what is the patellar ligament a continuation of?
    quadriceps tendon
  73. (knee joint anterior view) where does the patellar ligament attach to?
    tibial tuberosity
  74. (knee joint posterior)what does the Oblique popliteal ligament look like?
    -oblique band acorss the back of the knee
  75. (knee joint psoteior view) where does the arcuate popliteal ligament extend over?
    the origin of the politeaus muscle on the posterior knee
  76. (knee joint psoteior view) where does the arcuate politeal ligament extend from?
    fibula to femur
  77. (knee joint anterior view deep dissections) where does the anterior cruciate ligament pass from?
    passes from anterior tibia to the posterior part of the lateral condyle of the femur
  78. (posterior view deep dissections) Where does the posterior cruciate ligament extend from?
    posterior of tibia to the anterior part of the medial condyle of femur
  79. (posterior view deep dissections) which is stronger ACL or PCL?
    • PCL
    • *not as likely to tear
  80. (posterior view deep dissections) where does the meniscofemoral ligament extend from and with what deos it blend with?
    - it is a thin ligament that extends from the lateral meniscus and blends with the PCL
  81. what does meniscus mean?
    crescent shape
  82. what do the menisci do?
    help deepen the articular surfaces and act as shock absorbers within the knee
  83. where are the lateral and medial menisci located?
    within the knee joint
  84. what does the transverse ligament do?
    helps to hold the 2 menisci together anteriorly
  85. what 3 bones make up the ankle joint and what type of joint is it?



    *** hinge joint
  86. what direction does the ankle joint move in?
    plantar and dorsi flexion
  87. to what 3 structures does the deltoid ligament extend to?


    -and navicular bone
  88. what does the anterior tibiofibular ligament do?
    -helps hold the fibula and tibia together as they make attachment with dome of talus
  89. what does the posterior tibiofibular do?
    helps to keep the fibula together as tehy articulate with the dome of talus
  90. (plantar foot ligaments) where does the spring (plantar calceneonavicular) extend to?
    extends from medial calcenous to the navicular bone
  91. (plantar foot ligaments) where does the shorter plantar extend to?
    calceneous to go on the cuboid bone
  92. (plantar foot ligaments) where does the long plantar extend to?
    from calcenous to the base of the metatarsals
  93. (plantar foot ligaments) which 2 ligaments support the arches on the foot?
    -long plantar

  94. What is the radioulnar joint important for?
    supination and pronation
  95. which two ligaments blend around the head of radius?
    annular ligament and radial collateral ligament
  96. what does the annular ligament do?
    holds the circular head of the radius against the ulna
  97. In which ligament does the head of the radius rotate during supination and pronation?
    annular ligament
  98. why does a sprain occur?
    when a ligament is stretched or torn
  99. can sprains repair themselves?
    they can if they did not completely rupture
  100. how do cartilage injuries occur?
    occurs when cartilage within the joints is torn or small pieces have tore off
  101. can cartilage injuries repair themselves?
    no, because it does not contain a blood supply
  102. how are the small cartilages removed?
    • arthroscopic surgery
    • **the cartilages must be removed
  103. what are dislocations?
    • occurs when a bone is forced out of alignment
    • *they must be return back to the place in order to heal
  104. what does arthritis mean?
    swelling or stiffness of the joint
  105. what is rheumatoid arthritis?
    type of arthritis that occurs when there is chronic inflammation of the synovial memerbanes
  106. what does rheumatoid arthritis cause?
    resrtcited movement and severe pain
  107. what is osteoarthritis?
    articular cartilage starts to degenrate and causes pain withing movemment of the joint