Biology Lecture Exam 1

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missi4026
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Biology Lecture Exam 1
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2013-09-05 18:20:31
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Biology terms
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terms for first biology exam
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  1. Homeostasis
    means "staying the same".

    Homeostasis is how our bodies stay in balance.
  2. Growth
    An increase in size of an organism

    Also the number of cells for an organism
  3. Development
    The changes that take place between conception and death.
  4. Systematics
    The discipline of identifying and classifying organisms according to specific criteria.
  5. Scientific Method
    A group of techniques use t study and investigate phenomena, test theories, etc.

    • Steps in Scientific Method
    • 1. Observation
    •       observe what it is that you are going to studying.

    • 2. Hypothesis
    •        A tentative explanation for what the scientist has observed.

    • 3. Experiment/Further Observation
    •        Experiments are used to test a hypothesis. Good experiments should always include controls.

    • 4. Conclusion
    •         Scientists analyze the data they collect in their experiments to reach a conclusion.
    • Often leads to a hypothesis or another experiment.
  6. What are the 7 characteristics that all life share?
    1. Organized

    2. Acquire materials and energy

    3. Reproduce

    4. Respond to stimuli

    5. Are homeostatic

    6. Grow and develop

    7. Have the capacity to adapt.
  7. What are the 3 domains of organisms?
    1. Archaea- Bacteria that can live in extreme conditions.

    2. Bacteria

    3. Eukarya- All other organisms that are not bacteria
  8. Eukarya's 4 kingdoms.
    1. Protista- All the leftovers

    2. Fungi- Help decompose dead organisms

    3. Plantae- Multicellular photosynthesizers (make their own food)

    4. Animalia- Multicellular ingesters
  9. Atoms
    The smallest functional units of matter
  10. Protons
    Atoms with a positive charge
  11. Neutrons
    Atoms with a neutral charge
  12. Electrons
    Atoms with a negative charge
  13. Basic structure of an atom
    Protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons circling the nucleus of the atom
  14. Atomic number
    The number of protons in an atom
  15. Atomic mass
    The number of protons and neutrons in the atom
  16. Octet rule
    Used to describe the need to have 8 electrons in the outer shell
  17. Covalent bonds
    When atoms share a pair of electrons between them to make them have full outer shells

    Drawn as lines between atoms
  18. Ionic Bonds
    Atoms that give up an electron (when they have only one in their outer shell) and give it to another atom that needs one ( they have 7 in their outer shell)
  19. Hydrogen Bonds
    Form when a hydrogen molecule from one molecule becomes attracted to an electronegative atom of another molecule (such as nitrogen and oxygen atoms)

    Depicted as a dash mark between atoms
  20. Polar Bonds
    Bond between two atoms in which electrons are shared unequally. Because of this, one end of the bond has a fractional negative charge and the other a positive charge.
  21. Nonpolar bonds
    A type of covalent bond in which both atoms attract the bonding electrons equally or nearly equally.
  22. Polar molecule
    Molecules that have a significant number of polar bonds
  23. Nonpolar bonds
    Molecules that are composed of mostly nonpolar bonds
  24. Ions
    When an atom gains or loses an electron it will acquire a charge
  25. Solute
    Substances that are dissolved in liquids
  26. Solvent
    The liquid solutes are dissolved in
  27. Hydrophilic
    Polar molecules will dissolve readily in water

    (water lovers)
  28. Hydrophobic
    Non polar molecules do not dissolve readily in water.

    (water fearing)
  29. Acid
    Molecules that release H+

    A pH less than 7 is acidic
  30. Bases
    Molecules that accept H+

    A pH of more than 7 indicates that a solution is basic or alkaline

    neutral pH is 7
  31. 4 things pH can affect
    1. The shapes and functions of molecules

    2. The rates of chemical reactions

    3. The ability of two molecules to bind

    4. The ability of ions or molecules to dissolve in water.
  32. 4 macromolecules of life
    Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  33. Carbohydrates
    Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
  34. Lipids
    Molecules that are composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms.

    Nonpolar and insoluble in water.

    Include fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
  35. Proteins
    Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (has lots of nitrogen)
  36. Nucleic acid
    Are responsible for the storage, expression, and transmission of genetic material
  37. Monosaccharides
    The simplest sugars

    Most common types have five carbons (pentose) and six carbons (hexose)
  38. Disaccharides
    Two monosaccharides that join together
  39. Polysaccharides
    When many monosaccharides join together
  40. Amino acids
    The building blocks of proteins

    There are 20 amino acids
  41. Prokaryote
    Cells with a relatively simple structure.

    They DO NOT have a membrane bound nucleus
  42. Eukaryote
    Second cell type.

    These include some single-celled animals, fungi, plants, and animals

    Have many different organelles.
  43. Organelle
    Subcellular compartments (membrane-bound) that have their own unique structure and function.
  44. What do Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes have in common?
    1. Plasma membrane

    2. Cytoplasm

    3. Ribosomes

    4. DNA
  45. Cytoplasm
    Contains many different organelles.

    The synthesis and breakdown of molecules takes place in the ctoplasm
  46. Nucleus
    Enclosed by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope.

    In most cells, the nucleus is very large and occupies 10-2% of the volume.
  47. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    A convoluted network of membranes that form flattened, fluid-filled tobules.

    Can have ribosome attached (rough ER)

    Smooth ER lacks ribosomes.
  48. Golgi
    Stacks of flattened sacs that are not attached to each other. Packages materials into secretory vesicles that then fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents to the outside of the cell.

    Cis Golgi are found nearest the ER and the trans Golgi are found nearest the plasma membrane
  49. Plasma Membrane
    Provides a boundary between the internal and external environments. Separates inside of cell from the outside.

    Cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane. Important in cell signaling.
  50. Mitochondria
    Has an outer and inner membrane.

    Known as cells power supply

    Primary role is to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP)  and also generates heat in brown fat cells.
  51. Chloroplasts
    Specialized organelles that capture the sun's energy
  52. Isotonic solution
    Solute concentrations are the same inside the cell as outside
  53. Hypertonic solution
    Solute concentration is higher outside the cell than inside

    Water will rush out of the cell and it will shrink
  54. Hypotonic solution
    Solute concentration is higher inside the cell than outside

    Water rushes into the cell and it will swell and burst
  55. Osmosis
    The movement of water across membranes to balance solute concentrations
  56. Diffusion
    The movement of molecules down a concentration gradient

    They will move from an area of high concentration to low concentration until equilibrium is achieved
  57. Phospholipid bilayer
    The plasma membrane exists as a phospholipid bilayer

    The phospholipids arrange themselves in a very particular fashion

    Their polar heads face the inside and outside of the cell while the hydrophobic tails face each other in the middle of the membrane
  58. Channel proteins
    Allow molecules to pass through membranes
  59. Carrier protein
    Also allow molecules to pass through membranes but they work differently than channels

    These selectively interact with a molecule or ion so that it can pass across the membrane
  60. Receptor proteins
    Have shape that allows specific molecules to bind

    When the molecule binds to the receptor, it changes shape and brings about a cellular response
  61. Gradients
    The concentration of a solute will be higher on one side or the other (intra- vs extracellularly)

    Gradients can involve ions–these can be both chemical and electrical

    This means that the net charge can be higher on one side of the membrane as well as having higher concentrations of a particular charged ion higher on one side
  62. How do molecules move?
    Molecules want to go from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

    This is called moving down a gradient
  63. The 3 ways that material can be brought into cells
    1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis

    2. Pinocytosis

    3. Phagocytosis
  64. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
    This involves proteins on the surface called receptors that bind to specific cargo

    Many receptors will aggregate and this causes formation of the protein coat

    The plasma membrane to invaginate and eventually pinch off into a vesicle that will then take the cargo to its destination
  65. Endocytosis
    The process by which material is brought inside the cell from the external environment
  66. Exocytosis
    A process by which material inside the cell is excreted into the extracellular environment

    Material is packaged into vesicles for transport

    Most of the time, the vesicles are derived from the Golgi
  67. 3 things all nucleotides possess
    1. A phosphate group


    2. A sugar called deoxyribose

    • 3. One of four possible bases
    •     The four bases are:
    •     adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), guanine (G)
  68. How do the bases (of nucleotides) bond together?
    A always binds with T

    G always binds with C
  69. DNA replication summary
    The DNA must first be unwound –the enzyme that does this is called helicase

    It pulls apart the DNA parental strands (imagine unzipping a zipper)

    Next, an enzyme called DNA polymerase moves along the DNA strand and adds the right nucleotides from its pool of four different nucleotides (it matches by using the parental strand!!)

    When replication is complete, the two sets of DNA (each having a parental strand and a daughter strand) will wind up into the double-helix
  70. 3 ways RNA is different from DNA
    1. RNA is single stranded

    2. RNA has the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose

    3. RNA contains the base uracil (U) in place of thymine (T) so in RNA, A always binds with U!!!!
  71. Gene
    A stretch of DNA that encodes the instructions for making protein

    The general rule is that a single gene codes for a single protein
  72. Codon
    Basic unit of genetic code: a unit in messenger RNA consisting of a set of three consecutive nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid in protein synthesis
  73. What is the difference between transcription and translation?
    Translation is the process that converts an mRNA message into a polypeptide.

    Transcription is the process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA.

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